FILM & VIDEO PRODUCTION GLOSSARY

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 15 names in this directory beginning with the letter #.
1000ft mags
In feature film production, a 1,000ft mag is a 1000 feet film magazine containing 35mm film. The film production cameraman will know that there are 16 frames per foot of film, with 35mm film. This term can be used by video production companies or film / documentary makers when shooting on film. In film production, a 1,000ft mag will last for approximately 10 minutes, based on using the standard feature film production frame rate of 24fps. This term is not used in video production as videos production and film production generally utilise different media and video media is not referred to as ‘mags’ in video production. (Camera crew)

1080i
In film production and video production output, 1080i is a form of high definition video output. PAL and NTSC which are classified as Standard Definition (SD) are lower definition than 108i, the lowest quality HD format, with PAL/SECAM (Europe) having 576 scanlines visible in the vertical resolution and NTSC (the standard used in the US), possessing 480 visible scanlines. The ‘I’ means ‘interlaced’ and 1080i is a lower quality output than 1080p, where ‘p’ stands for the term ‘progressive scan’. 1080i is output as 1920 pixels wide by 1080 pixels high, which theoretically gives a higher screen pixel count of over 2 million, compared to PAL/SECAM (414,000 ) or in the US where the switch to HDTV has had the biggest visual difference, with an NTSC display only producing 345,000 pixels of information. 1080i is lower quality than the newer 1080p format of high definition. (Video production / broadcasting)

1080p
In film and video production output, 1080p is the best quality resolution that can be classified as being high definition in the home environment. The subject of how 1080p compares to the quality that is used to make many movies on 35mm film is a highly complex one and there are many factors determining the final output quality of film shot on 35mm. PAL and NTSC which are classified as Standard Definition (SD) used in many European homes are considerably lower definition than 1080p, the highest quality HD format, with PAL/SECAM (Europe) having 576 scanlines visible in the vertical resolution and NTSC (the standard used in the US), possessing 480 visible scanlines. The HDTV format 1080p is used by videographers using high-end commercial digital video cameras to make corporate video productions, however many home movie makers also can purchase 1080p cameras for making home movies. The subject of resolution doesn’t simply determine the final quality as the quality of the CCD, lens, sound and many other factors determine the quality of a camera’s output to a TV screen. This is often misunderstood by the general public who look for 1080p as being the only determining factor in believing one camera or TV set is better than another. The number 1080 is a reference to the number of horizontal scan lines which are displayed on screen. This term can be confusing due to it also being referenced as 1080 pixels vertical resolution. The insertion of the letter ‘p’ means that the scan is progressive ‘progressive scan’ or otherwise referred to as non-interlaced. (Video production / broadcasting)

1st Assistant Director
The First Assistant Director is also known as the AD and is the individual who works seamlessly with the Director of a video, or film producer. Depending on the size of budget for a movie, corporate video, feature film or educational video, the crew may contain a 1st AD. The general idea of using a 1st AD in developing a video or film production is so that they direct the production on behalf of the Director, giving the video or film Director more time to concentrate on ensuring that their direction is being followed. The process of involvement of the 1st AD in the production of a video or film commences during pre-production, with analysis of the storyboard. The video or film storyboard is segmented into individual shots, giving the 1st AD the opportunity to examine the time required for shooting and ultimately from this, the order of filming is determined. During the production process it is often the 1st AD which will be heard shouting orders on set, as they are wholly responsible for keeping the filming and video production schedule to time. Video production companies will often employ 1st AD’s on their video productions, films, documentary productions or specialist productions such as corporate video, educational video or scientific films. (Film or video production)

2-d Animation
2-D animation is often used by a video production company or multimedia agency. 2-D animation generally refers to animation made by using a computer-based programme such as video production editing software, like Adobe After Effects, or Adobe Flash. 2-D animation is significantly less expensive in the video production process, than 3-D animation. Depending on the programme used and the skill of the video production or video post-production / special effects technician, 2-D animation can be very effective in convincing the eye that the final result has a ‘depth of field’. A classic example of a simple 2-d animated video production technique used in feature films is the credits in the original Star Wars film. 2-d. Classic TV series South Park was made using 2-d animation video production techniques. (Post-production)

2:3 pulldown
A term used in video production. 2:3 pulldown involves conversion of 24-frame-per-second film to video, through repeating one single frame as three separate fields, followed by repeating the following film frame as two fields. This term is used by video production companies or film makers. (Film production / broadcasting)

2nd Assistant Director
A term used in either video production or film production to denote ‘The Second Assistant Director’, who is also known as the 2nd. In film production and video production, it is the 2nd who is the assistant to the 1st Assistant Director. The Second Assistant Director sees that in the video production or film making process, that the First Assistant Director’s wishes are executed. During film production or in the making of video production such as a corporate video, the 2nd creates the Call Sheet, which provides direction to the film cast and film crew. The Second Assistant Director manages cast flow, notifying the talent (actors) to be in make-up, wardrobe, or on standby on the set, to fit in with the video production or film production schedules. 2nd are employed by video production companies or film makers during corporate videos, documentaries, films, educational video productions etc, where a larger budget exists for video production. (Film or video production)

3-d Animation
3-D animation is used in the production of feature films, documentaries, corporate videos, technical videos and music videos, where there is a need to provide a life-like depth to characters or a visual perspective which allows the viewer to see an object from a variety of angles. 3-D animation also forms the basis of modern computer & TV video games. Entire movies such as Shrek were made using 3-D animation. 3-D animation is best reserved for higher budget productions when used in the corporate video or music video environments due to the time and expense in developing the 3-D animated characters or sequences. When used in situations such as medical videos or scientific films, it can be cost-effective, with relatively few 3-D models required, which ultimately minimizes video production expenses for commercial firms producing videos containing 3-D video output. (Post-production)

3:2 pulldown
This is a video production term used by video production companies or film makers. In video production this it is a rare variation of 2:3 pulldown. This video production process uses the first film frame which is repeated over 3 fields rather than two. The term 3:2 pulldown is also used in video production incorrectly by individuals who are referring to 2:3 pulldown and say 3:2 pulldown, by mistake. (Film production / broadcasting)

3rd Assistant Director
A term used in video production and film production - ‘The Third Assistant Director’, also known as the 3rd. In film production and video production, it is the 3rd who assists the 2nd Assistant Director and the 1st AD. On large film or video productions, the 3rd will ensure that the Extras are coordinated, which can sometimes mean that they are responsible for directing the acting action of Extras or cars appearing on set. The 3rd will be busy conveying messages on the film set, relaying vital information to keep the video production or film production schedule to time. Generally 3rd ADs are used to make feature films or video productions and are employed by a video production services company to make productions such as corporate video, documentaries or educational video when the budget permits. (Film or video production)

400ft mags
In feature film production, a 400ft mag is a 400 feet film magazine containing 35mm film. This term can be used by video production companies or film / documentary makers. The film production cameraman will know that there are 16 frames per foot of film, with 35mm film. Therefore, in film production, a 400ft mag will last for approximately 4 minutes, based on using the standard feature film production frame rate of 24fps. This term is not used in video production as videos production and film production generally utilise different media and video media is not referred to as ‘mags’ in the video production environment, such as for production of small-medium corporate video productions. (Camera crew)

4K
4K is defined as 4196 x 2160 pixels, which is a term which people often use interchangeably with UHD, which is slightly different (3840 x 2160 pixels). 4K is a format used in film production for cinema, whereas UHD is generally used more for home TV because the aspect ratio of televisions is normally 16:9 and therefore you can watch UHD at home without black bars at the top and bottom of your TV screen. There are 4-times as many pixels in 4K as there is in HD, therefore the quality of original footage filmed in 4K has 4x the amount of information that HD (1080p) has. The ‘p’ in 2160p and 1080p means ‘progressive’ with is a scan technology used on TV screens and this differs from the old technology of ‘I’ which means interlaced, used on the 20th century TVs which used phosphorescent screens.

5.1 Channel Digital Sound
This is a term used commonly by consumers, video production companies or film / documentary makers to describe surround sound – for example when purchasing video equipment or TV equipment. The term 5.1 is the film digital sound exhibition standard which describes 5 output speaker channels – denoted as left sound field, centre sound field (primarily used for speech in video production or film production), right sound field, right surround sound field, left surround sound field, and subwoofer for bass frequencies). (Sound)

720p
In film and video production output, 720p is the lowest quality resolution that can be classified as being high definition. PAL and NTSC which are classified as Standard Definition (SD) are considerably lower definition than 720p, the lowest quality HD format, with PAL/SECAM (Europe) having 576 scanlines visible in the vertical resolution and NTSC (the standard used in the US), possessing 480 visible scanlines. The HDTV format 720p is often used by videographers using low-end commercial digital video cameras to make corporate video productions. The number 720 is a reference to the number of horizontal scan lines which are displayed on screen. This term can be confusing due to it also being referenced as 720 pixels vertical resolution. The insertion of the letter ‘p’ means that the scan is progressive ‘progressive scan’ or otherwise referred to as non-interlaced. Because each line is scanned progressively at a high frame rate (60 frames per second), 720p is seen by the human eye as being high quality and virtually indistinguishable by the average person, from higher forms of high definition pictures seen using 1080p equipment. Purists would always disagree with this view. (Video production / broadcasting)

8K
8K is a recent format which records footage digitally using an 8k sensor. As the overwhelming majority of Films and TV shows are normally shown in HD today, with 4K being an emerging format, 8K isn’t going to be a common home format in the very near future. Production companies generally record in 8K to get extreme high-quality content and also so that they can zoom into the footage to obtain different shot sizes to use in productions. Today, 8K editing is extremely resource (hardware) intensive and requires large volumes of disk space to store footage, so only higher end productions use 8k at present.

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 15 names in this directory beginning with the letter #.
1000ft mags
In feature film production, a 1,000ft mag is a 1000 feet film magazine containing 35mm film. The film production cameraman will know that there are 16 frames per foot of film, with 35mm film. This term can be used by video production companies or film / documentary makers when shooting on film. In film production, a 1,000ft mag will last for approximately 10 minutes, based on using the standard feature film production frame rate of 24fps. This term is not used in video production as videos production and film production generally utilise different media and video media is not referred to as ‘mags’ in video production. (Camera crew)

1080i
In film production and video production output, 1080i is a form of high definition video output. PAL and NTSC which are classified as Standard Definition (SD) are lower definition than 108i, the lowest quality HD format, with PAL/SECAM (Europe) having 576 scanlines visible in the vertical resolution and NTSC (the standard used in the US), possessing 480 visible scanlines. The ‘I’ means ‘interlaced’ and 1080i is a lower quality output than 1080p, where ‘p’ stands for the term ‘progressive scan’. 1080i is output as 1920 pixels wide by 1080 pixels high, which theoretically gives a higher screen pixel count of over 2 million, compared to PAL/SECAM (414,000 ) or in the US where the switch to HDTV has had the biggest visual difference, with an NTSC display only producing 345,000 pixels of information. 1080i is lower quality than the newer 1080p format of high definition. (Video production / broadcasting)

1080p
In film and video production output, 1080p is the best quality resolution that can be classified as being high definition in the home environment. The subject of how 1080p compares to the quality that is used to make many movies on 35mm film is a highly complex one and there are many factors determining the final output quality of film shot on 35mm. PAL and NTSC which are classified as Standard Definition (SD) used in many European homes are considerably lower definition than 1080p, the highest quality HD format, with PAL/SECAM (Europe) having 576 scanlines visible in the vertical resolution and NTSC (the standard used in the US), possessing 480 visible scanlines. The HDTV format 1080p is used by videographers using high-end commercial digital video cameras to make corporate video productions, however many home movie makers also can purchase 1080p cameras for making home movies. The subject of resolution doesn’t simply determine the final quality as the quality of the CCD, lens, sound and many other factors determine the quality of a camera’s output to a TV screen. This is often misunderstood by the general public who look for 1080p as being the only determining factor in believing one camera or TV set is better than another. The number 1080 is a reference to the number of horizontal scan lines which are displayed on screen. This term can be confusing due to it also being referenced as 1080 pixels vertical resolution. The insertion of the letter ‘p’ means that the scan is progressive ‘progressive scan’ or otherwise referred to as non-interlaced. (Video production / broadcasting)

1st Assistant Director
The First Assistant Director is also known as the AD and is the individual who works seamlessly with the Director of a video, or film producer. Depending on the size of budget for a movie, corporate video, feature film or educational video, the crew may contain a 1st AD. The general idea of using a 1st AD in developing a video or film production is so that they direct the production on behalf of the Director, giving the video or film Director more time to concentrate on ensuring that their direction is being followed. The process of involvement of the 1st AD in the production of a video or film commences during pre-production, with analysis of the storyboard. The video or film storyboard is segmented into individual shots, giving the 1st AD the opportunity to examine the time required for shooting and ultimately from this, the order of filming is determined. During the production process it is often the 1st AD which will be heard shouting orders on set, as they are wholly responsible for keeping the filming and video production schedule to time. Video production companies will often employ 1st AD’s on their video productions, films, documentary productions or specialist productions such as corporate video, educational video or scientific films. (Film or video production)

2-d Animation
2-D animation is often used by a video production company or multimedia agency. 2-D animation generally refers to animation made by using a computer-based programme such as video production editing software, like Adobe After Effects, or Adobe Flash. 2-D animation is significantly less expensive in the video production process, than 3-D animation. Depending on the programme used and the skill of the video production or video post-production / special effects technician, 2-D animation can be very effective in convincing the eye that the final result has a ‘depth of field’. A classic example of a simple 2-d animated video production technique used in feature films is the credits in the original Star Wars film. 2-d. Classic TV series South Park was made using 2-d animation video production techniques. (Post-production)

2:3 pulldown
A term used in video production. 2:3 pulldown involves conversion of 24-frame-per-second film to video, through repeating one single frame as three separate fields, followed by repeating the following film frame as two fields. This term is used by video production companies or film makers. (Film production / broadcasting)

2nd Assistant Director
A term used in either video production or film production to denote ‘The Second Assistant Director’, who is also known as the 2nd. In film production and video production, it is the 2nd who is the assistant to the 1st Assistant Director. The Second Assistant Director sees that in the video production or film making process, that the First Assistant Director’s wishes are executed. During film production or in the making of video production such as a corporate video, the 2nd creates the Call Sheet, which provides direction to the film cast and film crew. The Second Assistant Director manages cast flow, notifying the talent (actors) to be in make-up, wardrobe, or on standby on the set, to fit in with the video production or film production schedules. 2nd are employed by video production companies or film makers during corporate videos, documentaries, films, educational video productions etc, where a larger budget exists for video production. (Film or video production)

3-d Animation
3-D animation is used in the production of feature films, documentaries, corporate videos, technical videos and music videos, where there is a need to provide a life-like depth to characters or a visual perspective which allows the viewer to see an object from a variety of angles. 3-D animation also forms the basis of modern computer & TV video games. Entire movies such as Shrek were made using 3-D animation. 3-D animation is best reserved for higher budget productions when used in the corporate video or music video environments due to the time and expense in developing the 3-D animated characters or sequences. When used in situations such as medical videos or scientific films, it can be cost-effective, with relatively few 3-D models required, which ultimately minimizes video production expenses for commercial firms producing videos containing 3-D video output. (Post-production)

3:2 pulldown
This is a video production term used by video production companies or film makers. In video production this it is a rare variation of 2:3 pulldown. This video production process uses the first film frame which is repeated over 3 fields rather than two. The term 3:2 pulldown is also used in video production incorrectly by individuals who are referring to 2:3 pulldown and say 3:2 pulldown, by mistake. (Film production / broadcasting)

3rd Assistant Director
A term used in video production and film production - ‘The Third Assistant Director’, also known as the 3rd. In film production and video production, it is the 3rd who assists the 2nd Assistant Director and the 1st AD. On large film or video productions, the 3rd will ensure that the Extras are coordinated, which can sometimes mean that they are responsible for directing the acting action of Extras or cars appearing on set. The 3rd will be busy conveying messages on the film set, relaying vital information to keep the video production or film production schedule to time. Generally 3rd ADs are used to make feature films or video productions and are employed by a video production services company to make productions such as corporate video, documentaries or educational video when the budget permits. (Film or video production)

400ft mags
In feature film production, a 400ft mag is a 400 feet film magazine containing 35mm film. This term can be used by video production companies or film / documentary makers. The film production cameraman will know that there are 16 frames per foot of film, with 35mm film. Therefore, in film production, a 400ft mag will last for approximately 4 minutes, based on using the standard feature film production frame rate of 24fps. This term is not used in video production as videos production and film production generally utilise different media and video media is not referred to as ‘mags’ in the video production environment, such as for production of small-medium corporate video productions. (Camera crew)

4K
4K is defined as 4196 x 2160 pixels, which is a term which people often use interchangeably with UHD, which is slightly different (3840 x 2160 pixels). 4K is a format used in film production for cinema, whereas UHD is generally used more for home TV because the aspect ratio of televisions is normally 16:9 and therefore you can watch UHD at home without black bars at the top and bottom of your TV screen. There are 4-times as many pixels in 4K as there is in HD, therefore the quality of original footage filmed in 4K has 4x the amount of information that HD (1080p) has. The ‘p’ in 2160p and 1080p means ‘progressive’ with is a scan technology used on TV screens and this differs from the old technology of ‘I’ which means interlaced, used on the 20th century TVs which used phosphorescent screens.

5.1 Channel Digital Sound
This is a term used commonly by consumers, video production companies or film / documentary makers to describe surround sound – for example when purchasing video equipment or TV equipment. The term 5.1 is the film digital sound exhibition standard which describes 5 output speaker channels – denoted as left sound field, centre sound field (primarily used for speech in video production or film production), right sound field, right surround sound field, left surround sound field, and subwoofer for bass frequencies). (Sound)

720p
In film and video production output, 720p is the lowest quality resolution that can be classified as being high definition. PAL and NTSC which are classified as Standard Definition (SD) are considerably lower definition than 720p, the lowest quality HD format, with PAL/SECAM (Europe) having 576 scanlines visible in the vertical resolution and NTSC (the standard used in the US), possessing 480 visible scanlines. The HDTV format 720p is often used by videographers using low-end commercial digital video cameras to make corporate video productions. The number 720 is a reference to the number of horizontal scan lines which are displayed on screen. This term can be confusing due to it also being referenced as 720 pixels vertical resolution. The insertion of the letter ‘p’ means that the scan is progressive ‘progressive scan’ or otherwise referred to as non-interlaced. Because each line is scanned progressively at a high frame rate (60 frames per second), 720p is seen by the human eye as being high quality and virtually indistinguishable by the average person, from higher forms of high definition pictures seen using 1080p equipment. Purists would always disagree with this view. (Video production / broadcasting)

8K
8K is a recent format which records footage digitally using an 8k sensor. As the overwhelming majority of Films and TV shows are normally shown in HD today, with 4K being an emerging format, 8K isn’t going to be a common home format in the very near future. Production companies generally record in 8K to get extreme high-quality content and also so that they can zoom into the footage to obtain different shot sizes to use in productions. Today, 8K editing is extremely resource (hardware) intensive and requires large volumes of disk space to store footage, so only higher end productions use 8k at present.