FILM & VIDEO PRODUCTION GLOSSARY

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 67 names in this directory beginning with the letter A.
A-Wind
An A-Wind is a roll of film where the emulsion faces towards the centre of the roll. (Film editing)

A/B Rolls
A term used in Film Editing in a Film or Video Production signifying two or more film rolls with alternate scenes intercut with opaque leaders. The A roll presents its own picture simultaneously with the B roll presenting its opaque leader. And, when the B Roll presents is own picture, the A roll presents its opaque leader. (Film editing)

Above the Line
This term is used in video production or film production to refer to creative elements of the video production or film production. ‘Above the line’ includes scriptwriters, producers, directors and the talent (actors). The term Above the Line has its origins in film production where there was a thick line drawn on a page, separating costings on a production budget sheet. The creative elements of the video production or film production budget were placed above this bold line on the production budget sheet. Video production companies, TV production companies and companies involved in film services or documentary making will use this term commonly. (Film or video production)

AC
An electrical term known as Alternating Current (which is also referred to commonly as mains current). (Electricity)

Accent Light
A term used in video production or film production to denote a light unit capable of emphasising one particular subject. This kind of light, used by video production companies is also referred to by a specific type of Accent Light such as a backlight, key light, kicker. (Lighting)

Acetate Base
In film making, the Acetate Base is a transparent cellulose acetate film used in the 20th Century as magnetic recording tape backing. (Sound recording)

Acetone
A liquid otherwise known as 2-propanone or dimethyl ketone, an organic chemical liquid solvent used to make certain types of film cement. Acetone is used by film companies or video production services companies, to clean film splicing equipment, used in film production or video production. (Film editing)

Acoustics
Acoustics is the science interested in the transmission of sound waves. Acoustics will generally be used to directly indicate the type of sound generated in a room or chamber such as an auditorium, church or recording studios (which are generally acoustically neutral or ‘dead’). Video production companies use this term when making every kind of video production, including corporate video, educational film, documentary production, viral advertising or TV commercials. (Sound)

Action Axis
In film, TV or video production the Action Axis is an imaginary line which can be visually created, which lies between two subjects (or along the line of motion) and its purpose is to maintain continuity. Should a subject cross this line during film or video production, it creates a ‘jump’ or error in continuity. The term 180-degree rule can also be substituted for the term Action Axis, in film TV or video production. Note the Action Axis can be ignored to create an obvious effect, such as producers may want to give to viral advertising campaigns or music videos. Such effects used in viral advertising productions or music videos can give the finished edit an amateur look – which is often useful in situations such as viral advertising, when the production requires a home movie feel. Used in the professional setting such as a music video, the effect can look like it has been purposefully created. Generally speaking, outside the areas such as viral advertising or music video productions, the effect is undesired. (Film or video production)

Action Cutting
When film or video is ‘cut’ from one shot to another using a manner which looks like the action is continuous, it is referred to as Action Cutting. This can be used by a video production services company in situations such as drama productions, educational video or corporate video, when creating a flowing action. Action Cutting can be created via one or multiple camera, dependent on the budget of a corporate video, film, music video or documentary. Action cutting used in corporate video is often a good way of keeping interest high in the subject matter, especially if the talent used is not professional, as is the case for many corporate video productions or music video productions, where the speaker often has little experience or understanding of how to behave on film or talk to the camera during the corporate video or music video production. (Film or video editing)

Action Safe
In Film Production or Video Production, the term Action Safe is referred to by a video production company, to signify the area on a monitor in which the essential parts of any action contained in a scene must be kept, in order for it to be certain that the final video or film output will definitely appear on screen - also see Title Safe – for titling. This is an essential term when used for making any type of production, from documentaries, music videos, educational videos or even corporate video productions. (Film or video editing)

Active Lines
Active Lines are the actual lines which can be viewed in a video output signal when displayed using apparatus such as video equipment or a television. (TV Broadcast)

ADC
A term used in sound production to refer to equipment which converts analogue sound into digital sound – this equipment is called an Analogue-to-Digital Converter or ADC. ADC’s can be used in a variety of applications such as CD players, camera, video equipment etc. ADC will most probably be used during the production of any corporate video, music video, educational video or film production, however the term is rarely referred to as it is generally an integral part of equipment used rather than a stand-alone device, though stand-alone ADC’s can be purchased. (Sound)

Address Track
An Address Track is a control or timing track used by a video production services company, which is present on the edge of the video tape and can be used to identify material present on the video tape. This is a term used in the production of video such as for corporate video productions or educational video for example. (Film or video editing)

ADR
ADR or Automatic Dialogue Replacement is the term used to refer to re-recording spoken sound in a studio environment, in sync with the picture. This technique is sometimes used during documentary production, corporate video production or film making. The video production term ADR can also be called Looping. (Sound)

Aerial Shot
Used in photography, video production, TV programme making or film production to denote a shot taken from a high vantage point, looking down directly on a scene. An aerial shot used during video production, viral advertising production, music video (pop video) or film making may be taken from a vantage point such as a balcony, crane, cliff, helicopter or aeroplane. (Film or video production)

AFC
AFC is a term used for Video Recording or TVs - Automatic Frequency Control, which is an electronic circuit in Video Cassette Recorders or TV Tuners which automatically locks onto an incoming channel. These channels are then generally saved to create active Channels on a TV set or Video Recorder. (TV broadcasting)

AFM
AFM stands for Audio Frequency Modulation, commonly used on Beta HiFi and VHS HiFi VCRs for audio channel recording. The audio channel signals are recorded on tape by audio heads. (Sound)

AGC
AGC or Automatic Gain Control is used on a Video Cassette Recorder or TV Tuner to ensure that the input signal is at the correct level for recording or visual display. A Video Camera may also possess AGC to facilitate successful recording, particularly for the amateur or home video user. (Sound)

Alexa
Alexa is a model of camera made by Arri, often used to make high-end productions such as feature films.

Aliasing
Aliasing refers to a video signal which contains unwanted distortion. The video signal can contain aliasing in either its visual or audio component. Aliasing is not a desired effect when a video production services company is producing film or video. (Post-production).

Ambient Light
Ambient light is the term in film, TV or video production which signifies light coming from a source which cannot be identified as a specific location. In film or video production, this type of lighting is also called general or non-directional lighting, such as room lighting. Ambient lighting is used in almost every type of production, from corporate video, music video (pop video) through to educational films and documentaries. (Lighting)

Ambient noise
Ambient noise is the complete sound field in a given location or scene. Ambient noise is particularly important to ensure authenticity to any indoor or outdoor recording during film, TV or video production, especially if the subjects speaking are recorded using directional microphones or there are any sounds added during post-production. Ambient noise can also be referred to as room tone in the TV, film and video industry and will almost always be a factor when production outside broadcasts, documentaries or corporate video productions. (Post-production)

Amplifier
An Amplifier is used by a video production services company to manipulate audio signal strength. In video editing and production, amplification greatly affects the quality of the final video production output. (Post-production)

Amplitude
Amplitude is measured as the displacement of a waveform from zero, from the peak of the wave to the trough (bottom) of the wave – also can be called wave height. Amplitude is directly related to volume, for a given setting. It is vital when producing TV commercials, documentaries, music video (pop video) or corporate video productions, to determine the optimum amplitude for each soundtrack, in order to produce a high quality sound which can be used for a professional output. (Sound)

Amplitude Distortion
Amplitude distortion refers to sound which is not clear and has been distorted from its original source – it is distortion of the sound waveform, such as can be heard commonly when sound is ‘clipped’. Amplitude distortion may occur due to voltage fluctuations or power consumption problems. Amplitude distortion is an undesired effect when making film, TV, corporate video or documentary productions. (Sound)

Analogue
An analogue signal refers to non-digital video and audio signals and must be converted to digital at some stage in the production, editing and or output of any TV broadcast or corporate video showing for example. (Sound)

Analogue Recording
Recording of audio or video whereby the recording is carried out using conventional or traditional analogue equipment. 35mm film is an analogue media, whereas Digital Video Tape is a digital medium. Many digital processes commence with conversion of an analogue signal such as when using a microphone, via an Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC). When sound is played back using speakers, a DAC or Digital to Analogue Converter is used to convert the digital signal back to analogue. (Sound)

Anamorphic
Anamorphic is a film industry term used to refer to an optical system, possessing horizontal and vertical dimensions of differing magnifications that produces the image. The Anamorphic wide video image, such as found in widescreen is horizontally compressed, allowing more detail to be displayed on a non-widescreen format. When viewed using a widescreen video monitor or display system, the picture reverts to normal size and the aspect ration of the image is as normally intended. (Broadcast)

Angle of View
The Angle of View refers to the size of the field for any given video or film camera lens. It is measured in units called degrees. In reality, the film and video industry usually use lens height and lens width to communicate Angle of View. This is primarily due to the presence of aperture masks in film. (Camera crew).

Answer Print
When producing TV commercials, corporate video productions, films, documentaries or pop videos, the Answer Print is the initial draft print containing audio and visual, provided by the lab for review and approval. Answer Prints are often used by video production services companies. (Laboratory)

Anti-Aliasing
Anti-Aliasing is the process of reducing Aliasing – also referred to as smoothing or filtering. The overall intent when using anti-aliasing in the production of a corporate video, documentary or film production for example, is to minimise nuisance frequencies generated during digitisation. (Sound / picture)

Aperture
Aperture is a term used by camera crew during the production of a corporate video, music video, live event, pop video, film making or documentary production, to refer to the variable opening inside a lens. The opening regulates the quantity of light which ultimately falls on the image plane. The term ‘Iris’, can often be used instead of Aperture. (Camera crew / lighting)

Apple Box
In film production or video production, an Apple Box is a large or small wooden box which is able to support weight. An Apple Box which is not very high is called a ‘pancake’ because it is almost flat. (Lighting / grip)

Arc
An Arc is a lighting unit used by a corporate video production services company or film production company, which lights an area via production of lighting from an electrical arc, produced by a pair of carbon electrodes. (Lighting)

ARccOS
Advanced Regional Copy Control Operating Solution. The Sony copy protection scheme for DVD-Video, developed to prevent 1:1 digital reproduction or ‘copying’. (distribution)

Armourer
An Armourer is employed on the set of a video production, by the video production services company, when making corporate video, documentary productions, educational or feature films, if specialized props such as firearms are to be used within the video production. The armourer is a weapons expert who can show the talent how to hold and use weapons, to create a sense of realism in the final video production. (Film or video production)

Artefact
During the process of video production, an Artefact is any unwanted or unnatural effect, which is absent in the original video footage or audio recording. Artefacts can be inadvertently introduced when transferring film to digital video, using any digital compression techniques or by external factors such as electrical interference, signal noise, and crosstalk. Artefacts can also be seen on some finished commercial DVD productions. (Post-production)

ASA
ASA is the term used in the US and has been replaced by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) terminology which denotes film sensitivity. It is an index of exposure / speed rating for any given film. ASA 100 film is the same as ISO 100 film. ISO is used for analogue or digital cameras, however analogue cameras require a change of film to change the ISO or ‘speed’ of the film, whereas digital cameras can achieve this purely via changing a digital setting on the camera. (Camera crew)

ASF
ASF is an abbreviation of the term Advanced Streaming Format, a format used to display video on the internet, which can store both audio and visual information. The ASF format can be used to display video or slide shows such as those used in viral advertising campaigns. ASF format allows viewers to commence viewing before the data is fully downloaded. This is a particularly useful format used by a video production services company when playing long video productions over broadband or small video productions over a low-bandwidth internet connection. (post-production / distribution)

Aspect Ratio
In video production, TV broadcast, internet video or any other form of video, the term aspect ratio is used to refer to the ratio of the horizontal dimensions versus the ratio of the vertical dimensions of a TV, monitor or even the original video source production being used (such as a Blue-Ray player or DVD player). The traditional TV used for many years had an aspect ratio of 4 (horizontal):3 (vertical) and is referred to as 4:3 or more commonly ‘four three’ in the video production and film production industry. Widescreen TV’s and modern video cameras produce output or record at 16:9 (or sixteen nine in the video industry) aspect ration. Some purists prefer to talk about aspect ratios in terms of numbers which are normalised to ‘1’, for example 4:3 is the same as 1.33:1, and widescreen (16:9) can be referred to 1.78:1. When normalising to ‘1’, the ‘1’ is often dropped from the description, therefore terms such as 1.33 or 1.78 aspect ratios can be heard within a video production company or when making documentaries, music videos or corporate video productions. When making viral advertising campaigns aspect ratio is generally less important as the web or email is the preferred distribution method. However, sites such as YouTube publishes video with a preferred aspect ratio of 16:9 (Broadcast)

Asperity Noise
In video production or film production, this is a technical term for what is more commonly referred to as ‘Hiss’. Asperity Noise or hiss is caused by tiny imperfections in the analogue recording media (tape). (Sound)

Assemble
In the video production industry or film making arena, organisation of film shots and compiling them in order or sequence in which they will be used in the final video production is known as assembling. This is an important process in the production of any corporate video, feature film, scientific film, music video or documentary (Film editing)

Assistant Dubbing Mixer
An Assistant Dubbing Mixer is simply a dubbing assistant to the Dubbing Mixer or Re-Recording Mixer (Sound)

Assistant Producer
In a film or video production company, an Assistant Producer generally reports into the Associate Producer and acts as their production assistant. (Film or video production)

Associate Producer:
An Associate Producer is often appointed by a video production services company to take care of the Producer’s interest in the production. In the film industry or when making high budget corporate video productions, documentaries, music videos, live event productions or educational productions, it is normally the Associate Producer who oversees any financial, administrative or creative interests that the Producer may have in the film or video production. It can be used as an egotistical title for an individual who makes a large financial contribution to the production or even a cheap alternative to a pay rise for a member of the cast, crew or administrative team. (Film or video production)

Associational Editing
Associational Editing refers to the technique of ordering edited footage in the attempt to show stark contrast, or an instant noticeable comparison. (Film editing)

ASV
ASV is a technical term used in video production and the film industry to indicate that a video picture has been paused to display a still image – the term ASV stands for Audio Still Visual.

Asynchronous Sound
Asynchronous Sound is essential sound used in a scene which is not fully synchronized. For example, a video production services company when making a documentary may focus on the speaker in a room, whilst general room sounds or external street noises can be heard. These sounds are used to add ambience to the film production but do not need synchronisation. Whereas Synchronous Sound such as that generated when banging a table, closing a door, playing an instrument etc, must be synchronised in order to establish reality during a scene. (Sound)

Atmosphere
The arrangement of Extras on set in a natural way is referred to as Atmosphere, within the film and video production industry. This is a common technique used in TV commercials, educational videos, corporate video production and even documentary production, to produce a desired atmosphere in keeping with the production (Production)

Attenuate
Attenuation of a signal refers to reduction or loss of that signal in a transmission system. (Post-production / picture / sound)

Audible Spectrum
The Audible spectrum refers to the range of frequencies which can be heard by the average person. This is important when producing any video or film production and is a concept which is well understood by sound engineers. Low frequency bass sounds are around 20 cycles per second (20 Hz) with very high frequencies being around 17,000 Hz. Humans lose their ability to hear high pitched frequencies with age. The frequency of sound is not related to the volume that is heard. (Acoustics)

Audio
Audio is another word for Sound. Sound is generated by video production companies by sound waves, forming pressure in the air which is then converted by a recording device into electrical energy, prior to being converted to a digital format. In video production, audio quality affects the outcome of any video production, especially when producing music videos. Dedicated audio equipment and software is used by Audio Designers, Producers and Engineers to capture, convert and add audio effects during the various stages of post production by a video production company. (Sound)

Audio Director
The Audio Director is also known as a Sound Director in the video production or film industry. In a video production company, they are responsible for managing audio content, sound design and the recording and post production process involved to produce the final sound output for the video production. (Sound / production / post-production)

Audio Editing
Editing the Audio signals is essential in video production or film making to ensure that the overall production is consistent throughout. When making a music video, corporate video or editing a live event recording, audio editing deals with optimising sounds, generating effects in post-production and bringing together the final audio to produce a professional result. A video production company will improve the sound quality, detail and even tone of speakers used in corporate video productions or outside broadcasts. The Audio Editing process is an essential part of any corporate video production, educational video, feature film or pop video. (Sound / production / post-production).

Audio Effects
Audio Effects are more commonly known as Sound Effects. Sound Effects, when used sparingly, will enhance the quality and realism of any corporate video production or film. The use of Sound Effects by video production companies, music video producers or documentary film makers, enhance the overall production.

Audio Engineering
An Audio Engineer is the individual responsible for overseeing the technicalities involved with producing a sound recording or audio effect when producing corporate video, film, viral advertising campaign or TV commercial. Audio Engineers also work on feature films and help create realism of sound for video productions. (Sound / production / post production)

Audio Levels
Audio Levels or ‘volume levels’ are essential when creating video productions, especially for broadcast TV, TV adverts viral advertising, corporate video or documentary productions. TV broadcasts and TV adverts are regulated in terms of the audio levels allowed. A good video production company will ensure that the Audio Levels are optimised when producing a video production. (Sound)

Audio Mixing
Audio Engineers are responsible for Audio Mixing during the video production process. Audio Mixing achieves correct audio balance for audio inputs, optimises recording levels and achieves the best blend of sound for the final video production. Audio Mixing is a skilled job and requires specialist knowledge of Audio Engineering, experience and the ability to use computer software, audio mixing equipment, and audio mixing desks. The final result of good Audio Mixing can make any corporate video, educational video, music video, documentary or film production significantly better than a video production which does not pay good attention to good Audio Mixing techniques. Live events often also require specialist Audio Mixing, especially if they are to be used for live broadcast. (Sound / production / post-production)

Audio S/N Ratio
The Audio Signal to Noise ratio is a measure of a pure sound signal expressed as a ratio against noise present in the same signal. A video production services company may use such term to discuss the quality of sound. (Sound)

Audio TS
Audio TS is a file name used for a DVD Audio directory found on a DVD disc volume. DVD-Audio is a separate format from DVD-Video so on a normal DVD-Video the AUDIO_TS folder is generally empty.

Author
Authoring is the process used by a video production services company when format video into a compatible form for recording onto disc or web streaming. (Distribution)

Auto Cue
An Auto Cue is a monitor or device fitted to the end of a broadcast camera, which displays text in a scrolling format for the reader to read. This is used so that the speaker such as a newsreader does not have to refer to notes or memory. Video production companies often use Auto Cue facilities when shooting outside broadcasts, news, corporate events such as product launches or special events like award ceremonies. The auto cue gives the impression to the viewer that the presenter is looking at them, even when reading the script. (Camera crew / production)

Automatic Slating
Automatic Slating is the term used when a camera attachment is fitted, which is capable of automatically recording the film shot and take numbers. Automatic Slating also produces a visible sync mark which corresponds directly to a tone generated for audio recording. (Production / post-production)

AVC
AVC is known as Advanced Video Coding. Forms of the AVC codec are commonly called H.264, MPEG-4 Part 10, or AVC. AVC achieves very high data compression rates. (Distribution)

AVCHD
AVCHD is a high definition form of AVC - Advanced Video Codec High Definition, and is the Sony / Panasonic standard. AVCHD is a very high compression codec based on MPEG-4 AVC or H.264 standards and is more often used with storage media such as found in Hard Disk Recorder camera devices, Memory Stick devices and DVD-recorder camera devices. The AVCHD format is designed to replace HDV and Mini DV formats. (Camera crew)

AVI
A widely distributed common file format called ‘AVI by most people’. AVI, or Audio Video Interleaved is a Microsoft format used to make video recordings which can be compressed using a variety of codecs. This means that there is no common type of finished AVI and playback on a video device requires compatibility with the codecs used to compress the original file. (Distribution)

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 67 names in this directory beginning with the letter A.
A-Wind
An A-Wind is a roll of film where the emulsion faces towards the centre of the roll. (Film editing)

A/B Rolls
A term used in Film Editing in a Film or Video Production signifying two or more film rolls with alternate scenes intercut with opaque leaders. The A roll presents its own picture simultaneously with the B roll presenting its opaque leader. And, when the B Roll presents is own picture, the A roll presents its opaque leader. (Film editing)

Above the Line
This term is used in video production or film production to refer to creative elements of the video production or film production. ‘Above the line’ includes scriptwriters, producers, directors and the talent (actors). The term Above the Line has its origins in film production where there was a thick line drawn on a page, separating costings on a production budget sheet. The creative elements of the video production or film production budget were placed above this bold line on the production budget sheet. Video production companies, TV production companies and companies involved in film services or documentary making will use this term commonly. (Film or video production)

AC
An electrical term known as Alternating Current (which is also referred to commonly as mains current). (Electricity)

Accent Light
A term used in video production or film production to denote a light unit capable of emphasising one particular subject. This kind of light, used by video production companies is also referred to by a specific type of Accent Light such as a backlight, key light, kicker. (Lighting)

Acetate Base
In film making, the Acetate Base is a transparent cellulose acetate film used in the 20th Century as magnetic recording tape backing. (Sound recording)

Acetone
A liquid otherwise known as 2-propanone or dimethyl ketone, an organic chemical liquid solvent used to make certain types of film cement. Acetone is used by film companies or video production services companies, to clean film splicing equipment, used in film production or video production. (Film editing)

Acoustics
Acoustics is the science interested in the transmission of sound waves. Acoustics will generally be used to directly indicate the type of sound generated in a room or chamber such as an auditorium, church or recording studios (which are generally acoustically neutral or ‘dead’). Video production companies use this term when making every kind of video production, including corporate video, educational film, documentary production, viral advertising or TV commercials. (Sound)

Action Axis
In film, TV or video production the Action Axis is an imaginary line which can be visually created, which lies between two subjects (or along the line of motion) and its purpose is to maintain continuity. Should a subject cross this line during film or video production, it creates a ‘jump’ or error in continuity. The term 180-degree rule can also be substituted for the term Action Axis, in film TV or video production. Note the Action Axis can be ignored to create an obvious effect, such as producers may want to give to viral advertising campaigns or music videos. Such effects used in viral advertising productions or music videos can give the finished edit an amateur look – which is often useful in situations such as viral advertising, when the production requires a home movie feel. Used in the professional setting such as a music video, the effect can look like it has been purposefully created. Generally speaking, outside the areas such as viral advertising or music video productions, the effect is undesired. (Film or video production)

Action Cutting
When film or video is ‘cut’ from one shot to another using a manner which looks like the action is continuous, it is referred to as Action Cutting. This can be used by a video production services company in situations such as drama productions, educational video or corporate video, when creating a flowing action. Action Cutting can be created via one or multiple camera, dependent on the budget of a corporate video, film, music video or documentary. Action cutting used in corporate video is often a good way of keeping interest high in the subject matter, especially if the talent used is not professional, as is the case for many corporate video productions or music video productions, where the speaker often has little experience or understanding of how to behave on film or talk to the camera during the corporate video or music video production. (Film or video editing)

Action Safe
In Film Production or Video Production, the term Action Safe is referred to by a video production company, to signify the area on a monitor in which the essential parts of any action contained in a scene must be kept, in order for it to be certain that the final video or film output will definitely appear on screen - also see Title Safe – for titling. This is an essential term when used for making any type of production, from documentaries, music videos, educational videos or even corporate video productions. (Film or video editing)

Active Lines
Active Lines are the actual lines which can be viewed in a video output signal when displayed using apparatus such as video equipment or a television. (TV Broadcast)

ADC
A term used in sound production to refer to equipment which converts analogue sound into digital sound – this equipment is called an Analogue-to-Digital Converter or ADC. ADC’s can be used in a variety of applications such as CD players, camera, video equipment etc. ADC will most probably be used during the production of any corporate video, music video, educational video or film production, however the term is rarely referred to as it is generally an integral part of equipment used rather than a stand-alone device, though stand-alone ADC’s can be purchased. (Sound)

Address Track
An Address Track is a control or timing track used by a video production services company, which is present on the edge of the video tape and can be used to identify material present on the video tape. This is a term used in the production of video such as for corporate video productions or educational video for example. (Film or video editing)

ADR
ADR or Automatic Dialogue Replacement is the term used to refer to re-recording spoken sound in a studio environment, in sync with the picture. This technique is sometimes used during documentary production, corporate video production or film making. The video production term ADR can also be called Looping. (Sound)

Aerial Shot
Used in photography, video production, TV programme making or film production to denote a shot taken from a high vantage point, looking down directly on a scene. An aerial shot used during video production, viral advertising production, music video (pop video) or film making may be taken from a vantage point such as a balcony, crane, cliff, helicopter or aeroplane. (Film or video production)

AFC
AFC is a term used for Video Recording or TVs - Automatic Frequency Control, which is an electronic circuit in Video Cassette Recorders or TV Tuners which automatically locks onto an incoming channel. These channels are then generally saved to create active Channels on a TV set or Video Recorder. (TV broadcasting)

AFM
AFM stands for Audio Frequency Modulation, commonly used on Beta HiFi and VHS HiFi VCRs for audio channel recording. The audio channel signals are recorded on tape by audio heads. (Sound)

AGC
AGC or Automatic Gain Control is used on a Video Cassette Recorder or TV Tuner to ensure that the input signal is at the correct level for recording or visual display. A Video Camera may also possess AGC to facilitate successful recording, particularly for the amateur or home video user. (Sound)

Alexa
Alexa is a model of camera made by Arri, often used to make high-end productions such as feature films.

Aliasing
Aliasing refers to a video signal which contains unwanted distortion. The video signal can contain aliasing in either its visual or audio component. Aliasing is not a desired effect when a video production services company is producing film or video. (Post-production).

Ambient Light
Ambient light is the term in film, TV or video production which signifies light coming from a source which cannot be identified as a specific location. In film or video production, this type of lighting is also called general or non-directional lighting, such as room lighting. Ambient lighting is used in almost every type of production, from corporate video, music video (pop video) through to educational films and documentaries. (Lighting)

Ambient noise
Ambient noise is the complete sound field in a given location or scene. Ambient noise is particularly important to ensure authenticity to any indoor or outdoor recording during film, TV or video production, especially if the subjects speaking are recorded using directional microphones or there are any sounds added during post-production. Ambient noise can also be referred to as room tone in the TV, film and video industry and will almost always be a factor when production outside broadcasts, documentaries or corporate video productions. (Post-production)

Amplifier
An Amplifier is used by a video production services company to manipulate audio signal strength. In video editing and production, amplification greatly affects the quality of the final video production output. (Post-production)

Amplitude
Amplitude is measured as the displacement of a waveform from zero, from the peak of the wave to the trough (bottom) of the wave – also can be called wave height. Amplitude is directly related to volume, for a given setting. It is vital when producing TV commercials, documentaries, music video (pop video) or corporate video productions, to determine the optimum amplitude for each soundtrack, in order to produce a high quality sound which can be used for a professional output. (Sound)

Amplitude Distortion
Amplitude distortion refers to sound which is not clear and has been distorted from its original source – it is distortion of the sound waveform, such as can be heard commonly when sound is ‘clipped’. Amplitude distortion may occur due to voltage fluctuations or power consumption problems. Amplitude distortion is an undesired effect when making film, TV, corporate video or documentary productions. (Sound)

Analogue
An analogue signal refers to non-digital video and audio signals and must be converted to digital at some stage in the production, editing and or output of any TV broadcast or corporate video showing for example. (Sound)

Analogue Recording
Recording of audio or video whereby the recording is carried out using conventional or traditional analogue equipment. 35mm film is an analogue media, whereas Digital Video Tape is a digital medium. Many digital processes commence with conversion of an analogue signal such as when using a microphone, via an Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC). When sound is played back using speakers, a DAC or Digital to Analogue Converter is used to convert the digital signal back to analogue. (Sound)

Anamorphic
Anamorphic is a film industry term used to refer to an optical system, possessing horizontal and vertical dimensions of differing magnifications that produces the image. The Anamorphic wide video image, such as found in widescreen is horizontally compressed, allowing more detail to be displayed on a non-widescreen format. When viewed using a widescreen video monitor or display system, the picture reverts to normal size and the aspect ration of the image is as normally intended. (Broadcast)

Angle of View
The Angle of View refers to the size of the field for any given video or film camera lens. It is measured in units called degrees. In reality, the film and video industry usually use lens height and lens width to communicate Angle of View. This is primarily due to the presence of aperture masks in film. (Camera crew).

Answer Print
When producing TV commercials, corporate video productions, films, documentaries or pop videos, the Answer Print is the initial draft print containing audio and visual, provided by the lab for review and approval. Answer Prints are often used by video production services companies. (Laboratory)

Anti-Aliasing
Anti-Aliasing is the process of reducing Aliasing – also referred to as smoothing or filtering. The overall intent when using anti-aliasing in the production of a corporate video, documentary or film production for example, is to minimise nuisance frequencies generated during digitisation. (Sound / picture)

Aperture
Aperture is a term used by camera crew during the production of a corporate video, music video, live event, pop video, film making or documentary production, to refer to the variable opening inside a lens. The opening regulates the quantity of light which ultimately falls on the image plane. The term ‘Iris’, can often be used instead of Aperture. (Camera crew / lighting)

Apple Box
In film production or video production, an Apple Box is a large or small wooden box which is able to support weight. An Apple Box which is not very high is called a ‘pancake’ because it is almost flat. (Lighting / grip)

Arc
An Arc is a lighting unit used by a corporate video production services company or film production company, which lights an area via production of lighting from an electrical arc, produced by a pair of carbon electrodes. (Lighting)

ARccOS
Advanced Regional Copy Control Operating Solution. The Sony copy protection scheme for DVD-Video, developed to prevent 1:1 digital reproduction or ‘copying’. (distribution)

Armourer
An Armourer is employed on the set of a video production, by the video production services company, when making corporate video, documentary productions, educational or feature films, if specialized props such as firearms are to be used within the video production. The armourer is a weapons expert who can show the talent how to hold and use weapons, to create a sense of realism in the final video production. (Film or video production)

Artefact
During the process of video production, an Artefact is any unwanted or unnatural effect, which is absent in the original video footage or audio recording. Artefacts can be inadvertently introduced when transferring film to digital video, using any digital compression techniques or by external factors such as electrical interference, signal noise, and crosstalk. Artefacts can also be seen on some finished commercial DVD productions. (Post-production)

ASA
ASA is the term used in the US and has been replaced by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) terminology which denotes film sensitivity. It is an index of exposure / speed rating for any given film. ASA 100 film is the same as ISO 100 film. ISO is used for analogue or digital cameras, however analogue cameras require a change of film to change the ISO or ‘speed’ of the film, whereas digital cameras can achieve this purely via changing a digital setting on the camera. (Camera crew)

ASF
ASF is an abbreviation of the term Advanced Streaming Format, a format used to display video on the internet, which can store both audio and visual information. The ASF format can be used to display video or slide shows such as those used in viral advertising campaigns. ASF format allows viewers to commence viewing before the data is fully downloaded. This is a particularly useful format used by a video production services company when playing long video productions over broadband or small video productions over a low-bandwidth internet connection. (post-production / distribution)

Aspect Ratio
In video production, TV broadcast, internet video or any other form of video, the term aspect ratio is used to refer to the ratio of the horizontal dimensions versus the ratio of the vertical dimensions of a TV, monitor or even the original video source production being used (such as a Blue-Ray player or DVD player). The traditional TV used for many years had an aspect ratio of 4 (horizontal):3 (vertical) and is referred to as 4:3 or more commonly ‘four three’ in the video production and film production industry. Widescreen TV’s and modern video cameras produce output or record at 16:9 (or sixteen nine in the video industry) aspect ration. Some purists prefer to talk about aspect ratios in terms of numbers which are normalised to ‘1’, for example 4:3 is the same as 1.33:1, and widescreen (16:9) can be referred to 1.78:1. When normalising to ‘1’, the ‘1’ is often dropped from the description, therefore terms such as 1.33 or 1.78 aspect ratios can be heard within a video production company or when making documentaries, music videos or corporate video productions. When making viral advertising campaigns aspect ratio is generally less important as the web or email is the preferred distribution method. However, sites such as YouTube publishes video with a preferred aspect ratio of 16:9 (Broadcast)

Asperity Noise
In video production or film production, this is a technical term for what is more commonly referred to as ‘Hiss’. Asperity Noise or hiss is caused by tiny imperfections in the analogue recording media (tape). (Sound)

Assemble
In the video production industry or film making arena, organisation of film shots and compiling them in order or sequence in which they will be used in the final video production is known as assembling. This is an important process in the production of any corporate video, feature film, scientific film, music video or documentary (Film editing)

Assistant Dubbing Mixer
An Assistant Dubbing Mixer is simply a dubbing assistant to the Dubbing Mixer or Re-Recording Mixer (Sound)

Assistant Producer
In a film or video production company, an Assistant Producer generally reports into the Associate Producer and acts as their production assistant. (Film or video production)

Associate Producer:
An Associate Producer is often appointed by a video production services company to take care of the Producer’s interest in the production. In the film industry or when making high budget corporate video productions, documentaries, music videos, live event productions or educational productions, it is normally the Associate Producer who oversees any financial, administrative or creative interests that the Producer may have in the film or video production. It can be used as an egotistical title for an individual who makes a large financial contribution to the production or even a cheap alternative to a pay rise for a member of the cast, crew or administrative team. (Film or video production)

Associational Editing
Associational Editing refers to the technique of ordering edited footage in the attempt to show stark contrast, or an instant noticeable comparison. (Film editing)

ASV
ASV is a technical term used in video production and the film industry to indicate that a video picture has been paused to display a still image – the term ASV stands for Audio Still Visual.

Asynchronous Sound
Asynchronous Sound is essential sound used in a scene which is not fully synchronized. For example, a video production services company when making a documentary may focus on the speaker in a room, whilst general room sounds or external street noises can be heard. These sounds are used to add ambience to the film production but do not need synchronisation. Whereas Synchronous Sound such as that generated when banging a table, closing a door, playing an instrument etc, must be synchronised in order to establish reality during a scene. (Sound)

Atmosphere
The arrangement of Extras on set in a natural way is referred to as Atmosphere, within the film and video production industry. This is a common technique used in TV commercials, educational videos, corporate video production and even documentary production, to produce a desired atmosphere in keeping with the production (Production)

Attenuate
Attenuation of a signal refers to reduction or loss of that signal in a transmission system. (Post-production / picture / sound)

Audible Spectrum
The Audible spectrum refers to the range of frequencies which can be heard by the average person. This is important when producing any video or film production and is a concept which is well understood by sound engineers. Low frequency bass sounds are around 20 cycles per second (20 Hz) with very high frequencies being around 17,000 Hz. Humans lose their ability to hear high pitched frequencies with age. The frequency of sound is not related to the volume that is heard. (Acoustics)

Audio
Audio is another word for Sound. Sound is generated by video production companies by sound waves, forming pressure in the air which is then converted by a recording device into electrical energy, prior to being converted to a digital format. In video production, audio quality affects the outcome of any video production, especially when producing music videos. Dedicated audio equipment and software is used by Audio Designers, Producers and Engineers to capture, convert and add audio effects during the various stages of post production by a video production company. (Sound)

Audio Director
The Audio Director is also known as a Sound Director in the video production or film industry. In a video production company, they are responsible for managing audio content, sound design and the recording and post production process involved to produce the final sound output for the video production. (Sound / production / post-production)

Audio Editing
Editing the Audio signals is essential in video production or film making to ensure that the overall production is consistent throughout. When making a music video, corporate video or editing a live event recording, audio editing deals with optimising sounds, generating effects in post-production and bringing together the final audio to produce a professional result. A video production company will improve the sound quality, detail and even tone of speakers used in corporate video productions or outside broadcasts. The Audio Editing process is an essential part of any corporate video production, educational video, feature film or pop video. (Sound / production / post-production).

Audio Effects
Audio Effects are more commonly known as Sound Effects. Sound Effects, when used sparingly, will enhance the quality and realism of any corporate video production or film. The use of Sound Effects by video production companies, music video producers or documentary film makers, enhance the overall production.

Audio Engineering
An Audio Engineer is the individual responsible for overseeing the technicalities involved with producing a sound recording or audio effect when producing corporate video, film, viral advertising campaign or TV commercial. Audio Engineers also work on feature films and help create realism of sound for video productions. (Sound / production / post production)

Audio Levels
Audio Levels or ‘volume levels’ are essential when creating video productions, especially for broadcast TV, TV adverts viral advertising, corporate video or documentary productions. TV broadcasts and TV adverts are regulated in terms of the audio levels allowed. A good video production company will ensure that the Audio Levels are optimised when producing a video production. (Sound)

Audio Mixing
Audio Engineers are responsible for Audio Mixing during the video production process. Audio Mixing achieves correct audio balance for audio inputs, optimises recording levels and achieves the best blend of sound for the final video production. Audio Mixing is a skilled job and requires specialist knowledge of Audio Engineering, experience and the ability to use computer software, audio mixing equipment, and audio mixing desks. The final result of good Audio Mixing can make any corporate video, educational video, music video, documentary or film production significantly better than a video production which does not pay good attention to good Audio Mixing techniques. Live events often also require specialist Audio Mixing, especially if they are to be used for live broadcast. (Sound / production / post-production)

Audio S/N Ratio
The Audio Signal to Noise ratio is a measure of a pure sound signal expressed as a ratio against noise present in the same signal. A video production services company may use such term to discuss the quality of sound. (Sound)

Audio TS
Audio TS is a file name used for a DVD Audio directory found on a DVD disc volume. DVD-Audio is a separate format from DVD-Video so on a normal DVD-Video the AUDIO_TS folder is generally empty.

Author
Authoring is the process used by a video production services company when format video into a compatible form for recording onto disc or web streaming. (Distribution)

Auto Cue
An Auto Cue is a monitor or device fitted to the end of a broadcast camera, which displays text in a scrolling format for the reader to read. This is used so that the speaker such as a newsreader does not have to refer to notes or memory. Video production companies often use Auto Cue facilities when shooting outside broadcasts, news, corporate events such as product launches or special events like award ceremonies. The auto cue gives the impression to the viewer that the presenter is looking at them, even when reading the script. (Camera crew / production)

Automatic Slating
Automatic Slating is the term used when a camera attachment is fitted, which is capable of automatically recording the film shot and take numbers. Automatic Slating also produces a visible sync mark which corresponds directly to a tone generated for audio recording. (Production / post-production)

AVC
AVC is known as Advanced Video Coding. Forms of the AVC codec are commonly called H.264, MPEG-4 Part 10, or AVC. AVC achieves very high data compression rates. (Distribution)

AVCHD
AVCHD is a high definition form of AVC - Advanced Video Codec High Definition, and is the Sony / Panasonic standard. AVCHD is a very high compression codec based on MPEG-4 AVC or H.264 standards and is more often used with storage media such as found in Hard Disk Recorder camera devices, Memory Stick devices and DVD-recorder camera devices. The AVCHD format is designed to replace HDV and Mini DV formats. (Camera crew)

AVI
A widely distributed common file format called ‘AVI by most people’. AVI, or Audio Video Interleaved is a Microsoft format used to make video recordings which can be compressed using a variety of codecs. This means that there is no common type of finished AVI and playback on a video device requires compatibility with the codecs used to compress the original file. (Distribution)