FILM & VIDEO PRODUCTION GLOSSARY

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 96 names in this directory beginning with the letter C.
C-47
C-47’s are simply standard wooden clothes pegs used in the video industry for video production or film making, to secure lighting gels to barndoors. They are sometimes called a number one wood clamp. (Grip / lighting)

C-Mount
Not to be confused with C-Stand (See Century Stand), a C-Mount is a standard mounting for cameras with 2/3" or 1" lenses. C-Mount lenses can be used on CS-Mount cameras, via adding an adapter. (Camera crew)

C-Stand
See Century Stand

California Scrim Set
A Californian Scrim Set is a standard scrim set with two doubles. (Lighting / Grip)

Call
Commonly used by video production services organisations and film companies, the Call is the name given to the sequence ‘roll sound, roll camera, mark it and action’. (Film & video production)

Call Sheet
The general form used by video production services companies and film companies during corporate video production, film making or specialist events such as product launches, employs the use of a Call Sheet. The Call Sheet lists every scene planned for filming on a given day and it also contains vital information such as the talent, staff and equipment required. (Film and video production)

Cam-Lok
A Cam-Lok is a feeder cable connector containing an integral locking mechanism. (Grip/Lighting)

Cameo
A Cameo is generally a non-speaking acting role of short duration, played by an individual who is famous. The most famous of all Cameo roles were those played by Alfred Hitchcock, during his film-making of many of his classics. Cameo roles have been played by famous politicians, sports stars, acting celebrities and other celebrities. (Film making)

Camera Angle
The Camera Angle in cinematography refers to the view point selected to film a subject or object. This term is a very important one used often by video production companies and documentary makers. (Cinematography)

Camera Blocking
Camera Blocking is the overall process of recording in detail, camera position, lens size, and focus during a scene. (Production / Camera crew)

Camera Log
A Camera Log is an official record containing scene or shot details, for a roll of negative. (Camera crew / lab)

Camera Reports
A Camera Report is the same as a Camera Log. It is an official record noting shots taken, together with useful notes for the film processing lab or for. Every roll has its own unique Camera Report. Reports can instruct the lab to check colour, keep colour as filmed, or to check for particular problems noted by the camera crew. A Camera Report is also useful during the editing process, to help with film editing. (Camera crew / labs / film editing)

Camera Roll
Every roll of film is defined as a Camera Roll. CR is used to abbreviate the term when film is forwarded to the lab, for example CR12 is the 12th roll of film from the camera. Video services and film companies regard it as vital within the film editing process when assembling the footage. (Camera crew / labs / film editing)

Camera Stock
Camera Stock is another phrase for film. It is referred to as Camera Stock by film or video producers to ensure that it is never confused with Print Stock. Manchester and London branches of thinktank video services carry specialist camera stock when shooting on set. (Camera crew)

Camera Tape
Similar to Gaffer’s Tape, Cloth Tape is used on film shoots by video services organisations. It is approximately 1 inch wide and used for labelling magazines, noting emulsion type and CR (Camera Roll) number. Gaffer’s tape and Cloth Tape are identical, differing only in description dependent on their use in film production. There are many suppliers to the video services trade and film industry in Manchester, London and throughout the UK. (Camera crew / labs)

Camera Wedges
Video services companies use Camera Wedges. The wooden wedges are around 10 x 1 cm, in a wedge shape. (Camera crew)

Candela
A Candela (also called Foot Candela) is a unit of light intensity, equal to one standard candle. This is known in the video services industry as one candela. (Lighting)

Canon
Canon is a leading manufacturer of production lenses, cameras and other film equipment

Cans
Cans are another word used by film services companies for what people call headphones. (Sound)

Canted Frame
Also called Dutch Angle. A Canted Frame uses a camera angle which at an angle to the ground or horizon. It gives a certain feel to a video services production – a kind of edginess. Thinktank’s UK Manchester and London production teams choose the technique of using the Canted Frame in certain styles of production. (Camera crew / production)

Capacitance
The ability of a component to hold charge (using capacitors). (Electrical)

Capture
Capture is the process of recording a signal from Broadcast TV, DVD or a video camera. Capture is essential in video editing as it digitizes the film to allow the footage to be transferred and converted into a format which can be used by video editors. Thinktank’s Manchester video editing team capture footage daily, from camera crew in the production management process. (Consumer)

Carpenter
The Carpenter on a film services or video set is also called the Chippie. The Carpenter builds wooden fixtures and furniture on set, for example, they hang doors used in film making or video production. (Tradesmen)

Casting Services
For a successful production as in a feature film, corporate video, training video, product demonstration video, educational video or scientific film, casting is an essential part of the preproduction. When making corporate video or educational video productions, casting can help improve credibility for a company, with trained actors being used to present a corporate or educational message. A video production services organisation will often use its own network or even refer to reliable casting agencies for selecting talent for a corporate or educational video. Manchester and London offices of thinktank video have their own casting services for UK clients. (Pre-production)

CATV
CATV was originally used although has now been superseded in the UK and across the world by the term Cable TV. It stands for Community Antenna Television. (Broadcast TV)

CC Filters
CC or colour correction filters adjust the colour of the light, for example CTO and CTB change daylight to orange and tungsten to daylight to give a different look to the shot (Camera crew)

Celo
A Celo is a plastic-coated wire mesh cookie. (Grip / lighting)

Censorship
Film Classification Boards within different countries determine the level of censorship required for any given film, video or video games production. Video services companies and film productions must be careful when producing films to make sure that it meets the criteria of the Film Classification Board, otherwise a feature film may not be allowed. In the UK there are around 12,000 films sent for classification every year with only a handful (usually less than ten films every year) which are rejected. Examples of Censorship classifications are U = unclassified, PG = parental guidance, 12 = at least 12-years old, 12A (advisory and to be viewed with a parent), 15 = at least 15-years old or 18 = at least 18-years old. (Distribution)

Century Stand
A Century Stand - also know in the video production industry as a C-Stand, is a grip stand used for holding and securing microphones, lighting, flags, cookies or scrims. C-stands are very versatile and can hold heavy equipment with extension arms. Sandbags are often used to secure C-Stands when used. (Grip / lighting)

CGI
See Computer Generated Imaging (Post Production)

Chapter
A DVD Chapter is used on a DVD or Blue-Ray to indicate a new scene in a movie. There are generally between 10-50 chapters in the average DVD or Blue-Ray movie on average. (Distribution)

Character
A Character is a real or fictional person, played by talent. (Cast)

Character Actor
An individual who is recognised for playing a particular type of character or personality within a film. (Cast)

Cheat
Taking a second shot at a different angle in order to change the composition of the scene is called a Cheat. The technique is used in Corporate, Music, Sports, Documentary and Film productions to insert, involve or remove an actor or object. Items or actors are Cheated in or out of scenes using this technique - this is a very common term used by video production companies. (Production)

Cheater Cut
A Cheater Cut is a summary cut of a previous episode or end of previous series to refresh viewers so that they can enjoy the upcoming film. Cheater cuts can be also used as a summary when commercial breaks interrupt a film. (Broadcast TV)

Chewey
An alternative name for a Director’s Finder (Production)

Chiaroscuro
Chiraoscuro originates from the 17th Century renaissance painters. The word is a combination of two Italian words, chiaro meaning clearly and the word scuro meaning dark – ‘clearly and dark’. The term is used in by film producers and the video services industry to mean a film or scenes which make dramatic use of light and dark contrast, via use of skilled lighting techniques. Generally it is used in greyscale or monochromatic style video or film productions (Lighting / film & video production)

Child Actor
A young actor who establishes themselves during childhood and may or may not make a successful transition into adulthood. (Cast)

Chinese Lantern
The Chinese Lantern generates a diffuse gentle light within a room, which may or may not have any additional lighting (Lighting)

Choreographer
The person responsible for directing and training cast and extras to dance, fight or co-ordinate other movements.

Chroma
Chroma is a truncated term for chrominance. Chroma means the colour component of the video signal. Chroma is used in phrases such as Chroma Keying – the process of using Bluescreen or Greenscreen to separate a subject from its background and place on a new video background. (Production / post-production / special effects)

Chroma Key
Chromakeying is using a certain colour, usually green or blue, to film cast against a uniformly lit background and then keying the uniform background out to place them in another place, such as a CGI background or a remote location. Chromakeying is commonly used in film, news or for corporate films which require a unique style. (Production/post production)

Chroma Keying
Chromakeying or Chroma Keying is the process whereby the subject is separated from the Bluescreen or Greenscreen background before mixing or placing the subject onto another background. The Chroma Keying process used by video production companies providing Bluescreen services can be real-time or non-linear, where computer software is used to very accurately remove and comp the subject away from the original Bluescreen or Greenscreen and mix with a new video backdrop. (Production / Post-production / Special effects)

Chroma Keying Service
A Chroma Keying Service is provided by a video production company specialising in Chroma Keying or Bluescreen & Greenscreen Chroma Keying – thinktank video provides Bluescreen and Greenscreen services. (Production / post-production / special effects)

Chroma Noise
Chroma Noise is random noise in the colour signal. A common cause of Chroma Noise is caused by traditional analogue video processing. (Video editing)

Clamp Light
A light which is fixed to objects via use of a built-in clamp. (Lighting)

Clapperboard
A clapperboard is used in film and video production to provide information to the development laboratories (or the editor in video production). Information contained on a clapperboard includes - scene number, slate number, roll number, interior / exterior, frame rate, time of day and filters used. The chevrons when brought together with the sound of the clap allow the editor to align the picture and sound in synchronisation.

Click Track
A click track is used in video production or by musicians, especially when producing music videos. The click track is a pre-recorded track containing click beats, used to direct a drummer, singer or actor during a production. (Music)

Clipping
Clipping is distortion caused by overload of an input signal, producing distortion. Clipping can damage speaker equipment and it is therefore wise to avoid clipping when producing video or music video productions. (Sound)

Close Shot (CS)
A Close Shot is a shot which is slightly further out than a Close Up and is a shot of head and torso, down to the waist. (Camera crew)

Close Up (CU)
A Close Up is a camera shot with the subject or object viewed at close range. The screen view of an actor’s head would be regarded as a Close Up. Also refer to similar terms used in video and film production, Extreme Close Up (ECU) and Medium Close Up (MCU). (Camera crew)

Coaster
A Coaster is a common name used for a DVD or CD which has failed during recording. It is called a Coaster because technicians in the film & video production industries generally use them instead of a standard tea or coffee cup coaster. This is a very common term in the northwest of England, especially in Manchester and Liverpool. (Slang term – UK)

Codec
Codec is a term used for compression in an audio or video signal. Codecs are used to compress audio and video so that it can be edited more easily and distributed or streamed without interruption. Uncompressed audio and video produce very large files which would otherwise be unplayable and difficult to edit without a codec being used. (Distribution)

Colourisation
Colourisation in the process whereby colour is added to video or film during post-production. Often this is done to older black and white footage. The process for correcting and changing colour within colour filming is known as colour grading. (Post-production).

Combo Stand
A Combo Stand is used for lighting and reflectors and is a heavy duty 2K stand, without wheels. (Grip / lighting)

Compander
An audio compressor device which is used to minimise noise from an audio signal. It works by improving the signal to noise ratio. (Sound)

Completion Bond
A Completion Bond is an insurance-backed assurance guarantee that a film will be completed. It provides indemnity for a video production company against unforeseen costs. (Finance)

Component video
Component Video is when video or signals are transmitted by separating the signals into individual components to improve quality. (Broadcast TV / consumer equipment).

Compositing
Compositing is the merging of several images into a final single image. (Film editing)

Composition
Composition is the aesthetic look of a moving image. Used extensively in the video production industry, composition factors in framing, field of view, general texture, colour, contrast and visual balance. Composition needs to be consistent to produce a uniform end result. (Production)

Computer Generated Imaging (CGI)
Computer-Generated Imaging, also very commonly called CGI by film or video producers, is a special effect using 3-D images created by software programmes, that are rendered to look photorealistic. This technique is most commonly used in the making of corporate, educational, training, scientific video, computer games and motion picture films. (post-production)

Conceptualisation:
Conceptualization is a key part within the pre-production phase of a video project. It involves determining the message, style, look, feel and other creative considerations, alongside a range of other factors which need to be agreed prior to filming commencement. (Pre-production)

Condenser Microphone
A very powerful , high-end and effective type of microphone used in video production. (Sound)

Contingency
A portion of the production budget, added to the costings, to account for unforeseen events, production changes and any overruns. (Finance)

Continuity
Changes within scenes, sequences or individual shots need to be eliminated. Also when a scene spans a number of days or filming sessions continuity ensures that everything remains unchanged, such as hair, makeup, props, positions of lighting, equipment and actors positions. (Production)

Control Track
A Control Track is a track used to ensure a uniform or constant speed of playback. (Post-production)

Cookie
A Cookie or Cucolouris or Gobo, perforated material, used to create shadows or break up light by a video production company. The effect is sometimes referred to as dapple. (Grip / lighting)

Copywriting
Copywriting in video or film production is called scriptwriting (Pre-production)

Corporate video
Corporate video are films made by companies or organisations to promote the company, its services and/or products (Corporate video)

Corporate video production company
Corporate Video Production Companies are also called Corporate Film Producers. The role of a Corporate Video Production company is to work with blue chip clients and SME clients in preparation and production of a Corporate Video for promotional purposes. (Corporate Video producers)

Costume
The clothes or apparel worn by an actor or extra during video production (Pre-production / production)

Costume designer
The person responsible for designing costumes for a film production. (Wardrobe)

Counter zoom
In video production a counter-zoom is produced by moving the dolly in the opposite direction to the the zooming. For example, pushing the dolly in and rolling out. The counter-zoom was made famous in the 1970s film Jaws. The move creates an eerie sense of drama (Camera)

Cover set
A reserve location for filming, if the main area is unavailable or unsuitable. (Production)

Crash zoom
A lightening quick zoom from a wide or wider shot to a close up of a person, a facial feature or object to create a dynamic feature or frame. (Camera)

Credits
Credits or end credits are lists of names of everybody involved in the production which are often displayed on TV screen at the end of a film or documentary production to formally acknowledge the cast, crew, companies, authorities and suppliers involved in the making of the production. (Post-production / distribution)

CRI
CRI is the measurement of colour and generally is used to assess the purity or a lightsource, where 100 equals sunlight or a pure tungsten light. LED lights are usually given a CRI number with values over 90 generally being reflective of a good LED light. In reality, CRI isn’t always a realistic assessment of quality of light and this has been proven in lab test results where lower value CRI numbers (as long as they are around 90+) can yeidl a truer and more beautiful result than other lighting fixtures with a higher CRI number. CRI is a good indictator and not an absolute guarantee of light quality. (Labs)

Croc clips
Crocodile Clips have small clips with teeth for clamping and are used by video production companies to affix gels to barn doors during lighting set-up. (Production)

Crop
Crop is the process used in video or film production, when sections of a video production are discarded or put to one side (Post-production)

Crossfade
The smooth transition of one sound into another. (Sound / post-Production)

Crossing the line
The line or action axis is a theoretical line between different subjects during filming. If filming results in an actor moving from one side of the line to the other, this creates a breakdown or jump in continuity. (Film or video production)

Crowd shot
A shot involving many people or extras. Crowd shots can also be CGI generated. (Production)

CRT
CRT monitors are old TVs, and CRT stands for Cathode Ray Tube, which is the main component in traditional TV sets. (Broadcast TV / consumer equipment)

CS-mount
Not to be confused with C-Stand (see Century Stand) or with C-Mount (see C-Mount). A CS-Mount is a modern lens mount used on cameras with 1/3”, ½” and 2/3" lenses. Generally, CS-Mount lenses cannot be used on cameras with a C-Mount. (Camera crew)

Cucolouris
Another name for a Cookie – a material used to create shadows or break up light .(Grip / lighting)

Cue
A Cue is an audible or visual prompt used during video or film production. (Production)

Cue Cards
Cue Cards or Video Cue Cards are used by actors during live or pre-rehearsed performances. Video productions such as for corporate, educational or training videos often incorporate the use of Cue Cards, especially if the speakers are delivering long lines or are not familiar with the skills of acting. Cue Cards provide a means of a visual references or prompts for the actor or presenter. Cue Cards should not be confused with Auto Cue – a system designed to display scrolling text for conference presenters, politicians and news presenters. (Production / Broadcast TV)

Cue Dot
See Changeover Cue

Cue Marks
See Changeover Cue

Cueing
Cueing can be used to describe the prompt used for talent to begin their entry into a scene. Cueing can also be used in the context of voice-over narration or to replace dialogue during post-production. (Production / post-production)

Cut
A Cut is a change from one scene to another or the end of a particular shot during production. The term is also used in video editing to indicate the physical cutting of the film. The term can also mean the ‘version’ of the entire film, such as a rough cut or final cut or director’s cut. (Production / editing)

Cutaway
A Cutaway is a shot (often without sound called a non-sync cutaway) which can be used to detail things in a film or to break-up the monotony of one person remaining constantly in-vision during monologue or dialogue. It is used to create contrast or to show what a contributor or acting is talking about. (Production / editing)

Cutting
Cutting is the editing assembly process where rushes are cut using in and out points and placed into an editing sequence, which is a long assembly of shots. (Film & video editing)

Cyan
A pale blue colour. (Colour)

Cyc lights
Cyclorama Lights, produce a uniform light across a Cyclorama – see Cyclorama. (Lighting)

Cyclorama
A Cyclorama is generally a term used for a permanent studio fixture which is a large wall curved at the floor to eliminate shadows. A Cyclorama can also be a portable device, also called Infinity Screen / Grad. Cycloramas are used by video production houses and film companies to create an environment where the subject or object to be filmed, is shot against a view which seems to be infinite, as there is no floor/wall line present. Video companies providing Bluescreen or Greenscreen filming facilities use a Bluescreen or Greenscreen Cyclorama or Infinity Screens to assist in the Chroma Keying process. (Grip / lighting / production)

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 96 names in this directory beginning with the letter C.
C-47
C-47’s are simply standard wooden clothes pegs used in the video industry for video production or film making, to secure lighting gels to barndoors. They are sometimes called a number one wood clamp. (Grip / lighting)

C-Mount
Not to be confused with C-Stand (See Century Stand), a C-Mount is a standard mounting for cameras with 2/3" or 1" lenses. C-Mount lenses can be used on CS-Mount cameras, via adding an adapter. (Camera crew)

C-Stand
See Century Stand

California Scrim Set
A Californian Scrim Set is a standard scrim set with two doubles. (Lighting / Grip)

Call
Commonly used by video production services organisations and film companies, the Call is the name given to the sequence ‘roll sound, roll camera, mark it and action’. (Film & video production)

Call Sheet
The general form used by video production services companies and film companies during corporate video production, film making or specialist events such as product launches, employs the use of a Call Sheet. The Call Sheet lists every scene planned for filming on a given day and it also contains vital information such as the talent, staff and equipment required. (Film and video production)

Cam-Lok
A Cam-Lok is a feeder cable connector containing an integral locking mechanism. (Grip/Lighting)

Cameo
A Cameo is generally a non-speaking acting role of short duration, played by an individual who is famous. The most famous of all Cameo roles were those played by Alfred Hitchcock, during his film-making of many of his classics. Cameo roles have been played by famous politicians, sports stars, acting celebrities and other celebrities. (Film making)

Camera Angle
The Camera Angle in cinematography refers to the view point selected to film a subject or object. This term is a very important one used often by video production companies and documentary makers. (Cinematography)

Camera Blocking
Camera Blocking is the overall process of recording in detail, camera position, lens size, and focus during a scene. (Production / Camera crew)

Camera Log
A Camera Log is an official record containing scene or shot details, for a roll of negative. (Camera crew / lab)

Camera Reports
A Camera Report is the same as a Camera Log. It is an official record noting shots taken, together with useful notes for the film processing lab or for. Every roll has its own unique Camera Report. Reports can instruct the lab to check colour, keep colour as filmed, or to check for particular problems noted by the camera crew. A Camera Report is also useful during the editing process, to help with film editing. (Camera crew / labs / film editing)

Camera Roll
Every roll of film is defined as a Camera Roll. CR is used to abbreviate the term when film is forwarded to the lab, for example CR12 is the 12th roll of film from the camera. Video services and film companies regard it as vital within the film editing process when assembling the footage. (Camera crew / labs / film editing)

Camera Stock
Camera Stock is another phrase for film. It is referred to as Camera Stock by film or video producers to ensure that it is never confused with Print Stock. Manchester and London branches of thinktank video services carry specialist camera stock when shooting on set. (Camera crew)

Camera Tape
Similar to Gaffer’s Tape, Cloth Tape is used on film shoots by video services organisations. It is approximately 1 inch wide and used for labelling magazines, noting emulsion type and CR (Camera Roll) number. Gaffer’s tape and Cloth Tape are identical, differing only in description dependent on their use in film production. There are many suppliers to the video services trade and film industry in Manchester, London and throughout the UK. (Camera crew / labs)

Camera Wedges
Video services companies use Camera Wedges. The wooden wedges are around 10 x 1 cm, in a wedge shape. (Camera crew)

Candela
A Candela (also called Foot Candela) is a unit of light intensity, equal to one standard candle. This is known in the video services industry as one candela. (Lighting)

Canon
Canon is a leading manufacturer of production lenses, cameras and other film equipment

Cans
Cans are another word used by film services companies for what people call headphones. (Sound)

Canted Frame
Also called Dutch Angle. A Canted Frame uses a camera angle which at an angle to the ground or horizon. It gives a certain feel to a video services production – a kind of edginess. Thinktank’s UK Manchester and London production teams choose the technique of using the Canted Frame in certain styles of production. (Camera crew / production)

Capacitance
The ability of a component to hold charge (using capacitors). (Electrical)

Capture
Capture is the process of recording a signal from Broadcast TV, DVD or a video camera. Capture is essential in video editing as it digitizes the film to allow the footage to be transferred and converted into a format which can be used by video editors. Thinktank’s Manchester video editing team capture footage daily, from camera crew in the production management process. (Consumer)

Carpenter
The Carpenter on a film services or video set is also called the Chippie. The Carpenter builds wooden fixtures and furniture on set, for example, they hang doors used in film making or video production. (Tradesmen)

Casting Services
For a successful production as in a feature film, corporate video, training video, product demonstration video, educational video or scientific film, casting is an essential part of the preproduction. When making corporate video or educational video productions, casting can help improve credibility for a company, with trained actors being used to present a corporate or educational message. A video production services organisation will often use its own network or even refer to reliable casting agencies for selecting talent for a corporate or educational video. Manchester and London offices of thinktank video have their own casting services for UK clients. (Pre-production)

CATV
CATV was originally used although has now been superseded in the UK and across the world by the term Cable TV. It stands for Community Antenna Television. (Broadcast TV)

CC Filters
CC or colour correction filters adjust the colour of the light, for example CTO and CTB change daylight to orange and tungsten to daylight to give a different look to the shot (Camera crew)

Celo
A Celo is a plastic-coated wire mesh cookie. (Grip / lighting)

Censorship
Film Classification Boards within different countries determine the level of censorship required for any given film, video or video games production. Video services companies and film productions must be careful when producing films to make sure that it meets the criteria of the Film Classification Board, otherwise a feature film may not be allowed. In the UK there are around 12,000 films sent for classification every year with only a handful (usually less than ten films every year) which are rejected. Examples of Censorship classifications are U = unclassified, PG = parental guidance, 12 = at least 12-years old, 12A (advisory and to be viewed with a parent), 15 = at least 15-years old or 18 = at least 18-years old. (Distribution)

Century Stand
A Century Stand - also know in the video production industry as a C-Stand, is a grip stand used for holding and securing microphones, lighting, flags, cookies or scrims. C-stands are very versatile and can hold heavy equipment with extension arms. Sandbags are often used to secure C-Stands when used. (Grip / lighting)

CGI
See Computer Generated Imaging (Post Production)

Chapter
A DVD Chapter is used on a DVD or Blue-Ray to indicate a new scene in a movie. There are generally between 10-50 chapters in the average DVD or Blue-Ray movie on average. (Distribution)

Character
A Character is a real or fictional person, played by talent. (Cast)

Character Actor
An individual who is recognised for playing a particular type of character or personality within a film. (Cast)

Cheat
Taking a second shot at a different angle in order to change the composition of the scene is called a Cheat. The technique is used in Corporate, Music, Sports, Documentary and Film productions to insert, involve or remove an actor or object. Items or actors are Cheated in or out of scenes using this technique - this is a very common term used by video production companies. (Production)

Cheater Cut
A Cheater Cut is a summary cut of a previous episode or end of previous series to refresh viewers so that they can enjoy the upcoming film. Cheater cuts can be also used as a summary when commercial breaks interrupt a film. (Broadcast TV)

Chewey
An alternative name for a Director’s Finder (Production)

Chiaroscuro
Chiraoscuro originates from the 17th Century renaissance painters. The word is a combination of two Italian words, chiaro meaning clearly and the word scuro meaning dark – ‘clearly and dark’. The term is used in by film producers and the video services industry to mean a film or scenes which make dramatic use of light and dark contrast, via use of skilled lighting techniques. Generally it is used in greyscale or monochromatic style video or film productions (Lighting / film & video production)

Child Actor
A young actor who establishes themselves during childhood and may or may not make a successful transition into adulthood. (Cast)

Chinese Lantern
The Chinese Lantern generates a diffuse gentle light within a room, which may or may not have any additional lighting (Lighting)

Choreographer
The person responsible for directing and training cast and extras to dance, fight or co-ordinate other movements.

Chroma
Chroma is a truncated term for chrominance. Chroma means the colour component of the video signal. Chroma is used in phrases such as Chroma Keying – the process of using Bluescreen or Greenscreen to separate a subject from its background and place on a new video background. (Production / post-production / special effects)

Chroma Key
Chromakeying is using a certain colour, usually green or blue, to film cast against a uniformly lit background and then keying the uniform background out to place them in another place, such as a CGI background or a remote location. Chromakeying is commonly used in film, news or for corporate films which require a unique style. (Production/post production)

Chroma Keying
Chromakeying or Chroma Keying is the process whereby the subject is separated from the Bluescreen or Greenscreen background before mixing or placing the subject onto another background. The Chroma Keying process used by video production companies providing Bluescreen services can be real-time or non-linear, where computer software is used to very accurately remove and comp the subject away from the original Bluescreen or Greenscreen and mix with a new video backdrop. (Production / Post-production / Special effects)

Chroma Keying Service
A Chroma Keying Service is provided by a video production company specialising in Chroma Keying or Bluescreen & Greenscreen Chroma Keying – thinktank video provides Bluescreen and Greenscreen services. (Production / post-production / special effects)

Chroma Noise
Chroma Noise is random noise in the colour signal. A common cause of Chroma Noise is caused by traditional analogue video processing. (Video editing)

Clamp Light
A light which is fixed to objects via use of a built-in clamp. (Lighting)

Clapperboard
A clapperboard is used in film and video production to provide information to the development laboratories (or the editor in video production). Information contained on a clapperboard includes - scene number, slate number, roll number, interior / exterior, frame rate, time of day and filters used. The chevrons when brought together with the sound of the clap allow the editor to align the picture and sound in synchronisation.

Click Track
A click track is used in video production or by musicians, especially when producing music videos. The click track is a pre-recorded track containing click beats, used to direct a drummer, singer or actor during a production. (Music)

Clipping
Clipping is distortion caused by overload of an input signal, producing distortion. Clipping can damage speaker equipment and it is therefore wise to avoid clipping when producing video or music video productions. (Sound)

Close Shot (CS)
A Close Shot is a shot which is slightly further out than a Close Up and is a shot of head and torso, down to the waist. (Camera crew)

Close Up (CU)
A Close Up is a camera shot with the subject or object viewed at close range. The screen view of an actor’s head would be regarded as a Close Up. Also refer to similar terms used in video and film production, Extreme Close Up (ECU) and Medium Close Up (MCU). (Camera crew)

Coaster
A Coaster is a common name used for a DVD or CD which has failed during recording. It is called a Coaster because technicians in the film & video production industries generally use them instead of a standard tea or coffee cup coaster. This is a very common term in the northwest of England, especially in Manchester and Liverpool. (Slang term – UK)

Codec
Codec is a term used for compression in an audio or video signal. Codecs are used to compress audio and video so that it can be edited more easily and distributed or streamed without interruption. Uncompressed audio and video produce very large files which would otherwise be unplayable and difficult to edit without a codec being used. (Distribution)

Colourisation
Colourisation in the process whereby colour is added to video or film during post-production. Often this is done to older black and white footage. The process for correcting and changing colour within colour filming is known as colour grading. (Post-production).

Combo Stand
A Combo Stand is used for lighting and reflectors and is a heavy duty 2K stand, without wheels. (Grip / lighting)

Compander
An audio compressor device which is used to minimise noise from an audio signal. It works by improving the signal to noise ratio. (Sound)

Completion Bond
A Completion Bond is an insurance-backed assurance guarantee that a film will be completed. It provides indemnity for a video production company against unforeseen costs. (Finance)

Component video
Component Video is when video or signals are transmitted by separating the signals into individual components to improve quality. (Broadcast TV / consumer equipment).

Compositing
Compositing is the merging of several images into a final single image. (Film editing)

Composition
Composition is the aesthetic look of a moving image. Used extensively in the video production industry, composition factors in framing, field of view, general texture, colour, contrast and visual balance. Composition needs to be consistent to produce a uniform end result. (Production)

Computer Generated Imaging (CGI)
Computer-Generated Imaging, also very commonly called CGI by film or video producers, is a special effect using 3-D images created by software programmes, that are rendered to look photorealistic. This technique is most commonly used in the making of corporate, educational, training, scientific video, computer games and motion picture films. (post-production)

Conceptualisation:
Conceptualization is a key part within the pre-production phase of a video project. It involves determining the message, style, look, feel and other creative considerations, alongside a range of other factors which need to be agreed prior to filming commencement. (Pre-production)

Condenser Microphone
A very powerful , high-end and effective type of microphone used in video production. (Sound)

Contingency
A portion of the production budget, added to the costings, to account for unforeseen events, production changes and any overruns. (Finance)

Continuity
Changes within scenes, sequences or individual shots need to be eliminated. Also when a scene spans a number of days or filming sessions continuity ensures that everything remains unchanged, such as hair, makeup, props, positions of lighting, equipment and actors positions. (Production)

Control Track
A Control Track is a track used to ensure a uniform or constant speed of playback. (Post-production)

Cookie
A Cookie or Cucolouris or Gobo, perforated material, used to create shadows or break up light by a video production company. The effect is sometimes referred to as dapple. (Grip / lighting)

Copywriting
Copywriting in video or film production is called scriptwriting (Pre-production)

Corporate video
Corporate video are films made by companies or organisations to promote the company, its services and/or products (Corporate video)

Corporate video production company
Corporate Video Production Companies are also called Corporate Film Producers. The role of a Corporate Video Production company is to work with blue chip clients and SME clients in preparation and production of a Corporate Video for promotional purposes. (Corporate Video producers)

Costume
The clothes or apparel worn by an actor or extra during video production (Pre-production / production)

Costume designer
The person responsible for designing costumes for a film production. (Wardrobe)

Counter zoom
In video production a counter-zoom is produced by moving the dolly in the opposite direction to the the zooming. For example, pushing the dolly in and rolling out. The counter-zoom was made famous in the 1970s film Jaws. The move creates an eerie sense of drama (Camera)

Cover set
A reserve location for filming, if the main area is unavailable or unsuitable. (Production)

Crash zoom
A lightening quick zoom from a wide or wider shot to a close up of a person, a facial feature or object to create a dynamic feature or frame. (Camera)

Credits
Credits or end credits are lists of names of everybody involved in the production which are often displayed on TV screen at the end of a film or documentary production to formally acknowledge the cast, crew, companies, authorities and suppliers involved in the making of the production. (Post-production / distribution)

CRI
CRI is the measurement of colour and generally is used to assess the purity or a lightsource, where 100 equals sunlight or a pure tungsten light. LED lights are usually given a CRI number with values over 90 generally being reflective of a good LED light. In reality, CRI isn’t always a realistic assessment of quality of light and this has been proven in lab test results where lower value CRI numbers (as long as they are around 90+) can yeidl a truer and more beautiful result than other lighting fixtures with a higher CRI number. CRI is a good indictator and not an absolute guarantee of light quality. (Labs)

Croc clips
Crocodile Clips have small clips with teeth for clamping and are used by video production companies to affix gels to barn doors during lighting set-up. (Production)

Crop
Crop is the process used in video or film production, when sections of a video production are discarded or put to one side (Post-production)

Crossfade
The smooth transition of one sound into another. (Sound / post-Production)

Crossing the line
The line or action axis is a theoretical line between different subjects during filming. If filming results in an actor moving from one side of the line to the other, this creates a breakdown or jump in continuity. (Film or video production)

Crowd shot
A shot involving many people or extras. Crowd shots can also be CGI generated. (Production)

CRT
CRT monitors are old TVs, and CRT stands for Cathode Ray Tube, which is the main component in traditional TV sets. (Broadcast TV / consumer equipment)

CS-mount
Not to be confused with C-Stand (see Century Stand) or with C-Mount (see C-Mount). A CS-Mount is a modern lens mount used on cameras with 1/3”, ½” and 2/3" lenses. Generally, CS-Mount lenses cannot be used on cameras with a C-Mount. (Camera crew)

Cucolouris
Another name for a Cookie – a material used to create shadows or break up light .(Grip / lighting)

Cue
A Cue is an audible or visual prompt used during video or film production. (Production)

Cue Cards
Cue Cards or Video Cue Cards are used by actors during live or pre-rehearsed performances. Video productions such as for corporate, educational or training videos often incorporate the use of Cue Cards, especially if the speakers are delivering long lines or are not familiar with the skills of acting. Cue Cards provide a means of a visual references or prompts for the actor or presenter. Cue Cards should not be confused with Auto Cue – a system designed to display scrolling text for conference presenters, politicians and news presenters. (Production / Broadcast TV)

Cue Dot
See Changeover Cue

Cue Marks
See Changeover Cue

Cueing
Cueing can be used to describe the prompt used for talent to begin their entry into a scene. Cueing can also be used in the context of voice-over narration or to replace dialogue during post-production. (Production / post-production)

Cut
A Cut is a change from one scene to another or the end of a particular shot during production. The term is also used in video editing to indicate the physical cutting of the film. The term can also mean the ‘version’ of the entire film, such as a rough cut or final cut or director’s cut. (Production / editing)

Cutaway
A Cutaway is a shot (often without sound called a non-sync cutaway) which can be used to detail things in a film or to break-up the monotony of one person remaining constantly in-vision during monologue or dialogue. It is used to create contrast or to show what a contributor or acting is talking about. (Production / editing)

Cutting
Cutting is the editing assembly process where rushes are cut using in and out points and placed into an editing sequence, which is a long assembly of shots. (Film & video editing)

Cyan
A pale blue colour. (Colour)

Cyc lights
Cyclorama Lights, produce a uniform light across a Cyclorama – see Cyclorama. (Lighting)

Cyclorama
A Cyclorama is generally a term used for a permanent studio fixture which is a large wall curved at the floor to eliminate shadows. A Cyclorama can also be a portable device, also called Infinity Screen / Grad. Cycloramas are used by video production houses and film companies to create an environment where the subject or object to be filmed, is shot against a view which seems to be infinite, as there is no floor/wall line present. Video companies providing Bluescreen or Greenscreen filming facilities use a Bluescreen or Greenscreen Cyclorama or Infinity Screens to assist in the Chroma Keying process. (Grip / lighting / production)