FILM & VIDEO PRODUCTION GLOSSARY

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 54 names in this directory beginning with the letter D.
Dallies
Dailies are the positive prints made by the film labs, directly produced from the negatives. It can be very confusing as in video production, it can also be used to mean the video which is transferred from the original film negative. Dallies are generally used in film making for productions such as feature film and corporate films or coporate video. (Laboratory)

Day for night
Day for Night is the phrase used when shooting during the day to give the impression that it is night-time. Usually achieved by shooting using filters on camera and use of tungsten balanced film during the day to give a moonlight style effect. This is a common technique used in broadcast and non-broadcast productions such as soap operas, corporate video and similar style video or film productions. (Camera crew)

Day out of days
The form used for cast or crew’s assignment of the days they are being employed on the production. (Production / finance)

Daylight balanced
When making film productions and shooting outdoors, daylight balanced film is used – for example in a live outdoor event, an outdoor product launch or sports training video. Colour film used for outdoors is daylight balanced and if used indoors without a correction filter, the scene will appear orange. (Production / camera crew)

Dead Pan
A comedy actor who is also called the straight man, meaning that during the funny moments, the actor keeps a straight face with no emotion.

Dead spot
An acoustic anomaly, the Dead Spot is any area where sound cancels itself out. (Production / sound)

Dead Sync
Dead Sync is the perfect synchronisation of sound and vision. (Film & video editing)

Deal Memo
The pay and conditions form. The Deal memo normally includes details of working agreements. (Finance)

Decibel (dB)
A standard unit of measurement used to measure loudness of sound in the film and video sector. An increase of 6 dB represents a doubling in the power output. (Sound)

Decoder
A decoder turns one kind of signal into another which is more useful to work with in the film production workflow. (Production)

Decoupage
A French film style or video production style. (Production)

Deep focus
Deep Focus refers to the depth of field. Cinematic films generally employ a shallow depth of field to focus attention on the actors or scene, whereas Deep Focus is a technique using wide angle lenses combined with small lens apertures. This technique used in video production (corporate, film etc.) keeps objects in the extreme background and foreground focused at the same time. (Cinematography)

Deinterlacing
Deinterlacing is the way in which two single frames, consisting of alternating lines are converted into one single image – mainly used for older-type broadcasting equipment. (Broadcast TV & consumer equipment)

Deleted Scene
Deleted scenes are scenes which have been removed following the final decision for what material should be included in the final cut of a film.

Demo Reel
The showreel or demo reel is a montage of work by a production company, highlighting different skills that they possess to showcase their capabilities to prospective clients. (Marketing & promotion)

Demodulation
Demodulation conversion of the carrier signal to produce the required end audio and video signals for broadcast television. (Broadcast TV / distribution)

Demultiplexing
Demux or Demuliplexing is separation of video and audio signals into separate files. This is used in every type of video production from corporate video through to feature film production. (post-production)

Denouement
Following the climax of a film or production denouement is the resolution where the story comes together to produce an explanation for viewers. It is often the final scene in a film. (Production)

Depth of field
Depth of Field (DoF) is the size of the area (from the camera lens to infinity) which is in focus at any single time. Cinematic footage generally has a shallow or short depth of field, meaning that the foreground and background are blurred. A deeper depth of field is used for establishing a scene or showing a location where viewers need to see more things in focus. (Camera crew)

Deuce
A Deuce is a 2K fresnel light. (Lighting)

Dialogue track
Quite simply this is a sound track, incorporated within the film or on an external recorder which contains speech. (Sound)

Diff
This is the term used for a gel (sometimes a frosted gel) which is positioned in front of a light source to reduce its overall brightness. Diffs are generally measured in ‘stops’. (Lighting)

Digital
Video or sound recorded on media which isn’t film. Digital video or sound uses mathematics (numbers) to create the image or sound, in contrast to film or magnetic tape which are older and non-digital ways of recording.

Digital 8
A format introduced by Sony and popular in the late 1990s. This format is now considered historic due to the introduction of digital technologies stored on flash media which have largely outdated the original tape formats of yesteryear for the video production industry. (video production)

Digital recording
The current method of recording pictures and sound in feature film (sometimes), and nearly always for live work, documentary production or corporate video. Digital recordings rely on the re-encoding of analogue signals (visual and sound) into digital format. The classic examples of commonly used digital recording formats used in the home are MP3 and MP4 formats, used for music production and video production.

Digital signal
A Digital Signal is a signal that is carried optically, without an analogue component. A Digital Signal may have been originated either digitally for example in the event of a musical synthesizer or through an analogue source, such as a video feed, prior to being converted into a digital form by an Analogue to Digital converter. (Post-production)

Digital video camera
Digital Video Camera is a camera which records using digital media such as flash data cards or SSDs. Thinktank uses the latest digital video camera technologies and industry standard lenses to produce corporate videos and documentary productions.

Digital video editing
Digital Video Editing: Digital video editing refers to the techniques of editing digital images and sounds. To enhance or improve a video/film, videographers use specialized digital video editing equipment, hardware, and software. It is crucial that digital video editing is completed, for a more refined film or video.

Digital Video Interface (DVI):
DVI signals are commonly found on high-end monitors where the signal can be DVI-A or DVI-D (with the A standing for Analogue and the D standing for Digital). Dual-Link DVI is another example of the DVI connector format. DVI links are often found on in-house video systems and on live event multi-camera systems which require the use of High Definition monitors for faithful playback of incoming signals from cameras, VT playback etc. (Hardware)

Digital Video Production
The services commonly provided by a video production company. The term can be misleading as digital video production companies can also use film cameras, depending upon the size, expertise and nature of the film company (video production)

Dimmer
A device, normally a fader or round button which is used for controlling the amount of light, between minimum and maximum light levels. (Lighting)

Dingle
These are branches with leaves, which are placed in front of a light as a cookie would to cut the light and provide a shadow pattern. (Grip/Lighting)

Diopter
A diopter helps correct vision for camera operators without perfect vision. Helps camera crew with less than perfect vision.

Director
The director is the individual leading the creative process of telling the story. The crew work under direction from the director who has overall control of the film. The director works alongside the producer to ensure that the film is delivered with the original vision in mind, within agreed budgets. A producer sometimes overrules the director in deciding on what the final edit should look like and therefore, films sometimes have an alternative version or director’s cut. (Film/ Video production)

Director of Photography
In film and video production, the Director of Photography or DoP, DOP or DP, is the individual responsible for creating the artistic and technical leadership for overall creative direction of the Film, following the Director’s guidance.

Director’s Cut
The director’s cut is often the non-commercial favourite version of the film, preferred by the film director. These cuts are often included with distributed Blu Rays and a director’s cut is sometimes significantly longer than the original film. (Production / post-production / distribution)

Director’s finder
This is a tool used by a film director or DOP for taking a quick look at what a shot is likely to look like using a certain prime lens, at a certain distance, angle or position. (Production).

Dissolve
A Dissolve is a video transition when one cut gradually dissolves directly into the next cut. (Film editing)

Dolly
A Dolly is simply a platform which can be used to hold a camera in a steady position. A variety of dollies exist, at a variety of price points from £1,000 - £100,000+ in video and film production. They can be used for a hand-held camera shot, shots from static platforms on the dolly, or the dolly can move with electronic control up/down to give greater flexibility for shots. Dollies are often moved along a track by a grip or they can also be used on free-moving pneumatic wheels for maximum flexibility. (Crew / Grip)

Dolly Shot:
A travelling shot or tracking shot which is captured using a dolly can also be referred to as a dolly shot (Crew / Production)

Doorway Dolly
This is a dolly made out of light-wood and with rubber tyres. It is also generally fitted with handles to facilitate easy moving by a grip. It is used for filming and can be also used for moving equipment around a location (grip) A plywood dolly with four soft tires which is narrow enough to fit through a doorway. It is used to carry a camera on a tripod or for transporting other heavy items. (Grip)

DoP
See Director of Photography. (Crew)

Dots
Dots are flags or small nets used in controlling light. (Grip / lighting)

Double system
This is the opposite of a single system. The double system records sound and picture to different devices, such as a camera and a separate field recorder. This is the standard methodology used for making high-end productions or feature films. (Film)

DP
See Director of Photography. (Crew)

DTV
Also known as Digital TV, which is the standard for broadcasting picture and sound digitally, which is superior quality to traditional analogue TV.

Dubbing
Dubbing: An actor’s voice synchronization with lip movements which are not the originally recorded sound. This is used to replace unusable dialogue or recordings, and also used to prepare foreign films for new markets. (Post Production)

Dupe
A Dupe is an exact copy of a negative or positive. Short for duplicate negative or duplicate positive. (Film editing)

Dutch Angle
Also called Canted Angle, a Dutch Angle is where a camera is placed at an angle so that the horizontal frame line is not parallel to the horizon during video or film production. (Camera crew / production)

Dutch Tilt
See Dutch Angle. Also see Canted Angle (Camera crew / production)

Duvetyne
Is a heavy black fire retardant cloth, used for blacking out windows, making teasers, hiding cables, and other unwanted items. (Grip)

DVI
See Digital Video Interface

Dynamic Distortion
Dynamic Distortion is the change of a volume range during sound transmission. (Sound)

Dynamic Range
The Dynamic Range is the difference between the peak and audio troughs of a track, measured in units of decibels. (Sound)

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 54 names in this directory beginning with the letter D.
Dallies
Dailies are the positive prints made by the film labs, directly produced from the negatives. It can be very confusing as in video production, it can also be used to mean the video which is transferred from the original film negative. Dallies are generally used in film making for productions such as feature film and corporate films or coporate video. (Laboratory)

Day for night
Day for Night is the phrase used when shooting during the day to give the impression that it is night-time. Usually achieved by shooting using filters on camera and use of tungsten balanced film during the day to give a moonlight style effect. This is a common technique used in broadcast and non-broadcast productions such as soap operas, corporate video and similar style video or film productions. (Camera crew)

Day out of days
The form used for cast or crew’s assignment of the days they are being employed on the production. (Production / finance)

Daylight balanced
When making film productions and shooting outdoors, daylight balanced film is used – for example in a live outdoor event, an outdoor product launch or sports training video. Colour film used for outdoors is daylight balanced and if used indoors without a correction filter, the scene will appear orange. (Production / camera crew)

Dead Pan
A comedy actor who is also called the straight man, meaning that during the funny moments, the actor keeps a straight face with no emotion.

Dead spot
An acoustic anomaly, the Dead Spot is any area where sound cancels itself out. (Production / sound)

Dead Sync
Dead Sync is the perfect synchronisation of sound and vision. (Film & video editing)

Deal Memo
The pay and conditions form. The Deal memo normally includes details of working agreements. (Finance)

Decibel (dB)
A standard unit of measurement used to measure loudness of sound in the film and video sector. An increase of 6 dB represents a doubling in the power output. (Sound)

Decoder
A decoder turns one kind of signal into another which is more useful to work with in the film production workflow. (Production)

Decoupage
A French film style or video production style. (Production)

Deep focus
Deep Focus refers to the depth of field. Cinematic films generally employ a shallow depth of field to focus attention on the actors or scene, whereas Deep Focus is a technique using wide angle lenses combined with small lens apertures. This technique used in video production (corporate, film etc.) keeps objects in the extreme background and foreground focused at the same time. (Cinematography)

Deinterlacing
Deinterlacing is the way in which two single frames, consisting of alternating lines are converted into one single image – mainly used for older-type broadcasting equipment. (Broadcast TV & consumer equipment)

Deleted Scene
Deleted scenes are scenes which have been removed following the final decision for what material should be included in the final cut of a film.

Demo Reel
The showreel or demo reel is a montage of work by a production company, highlighting different skills that they possess to showcase their capabilities to prospective clients. (Marketing & promotion)

Demodulation
Demodulation conversion of the carrier signal to produce the required end audio and video signals for broadcast television. (Broadcast TV / distribution)

Demultiplexing
Demux or Demuliplexing is separation of video and audio signals into separate files. This is used in every type of video production from corporate video through to feature film production. (post-production)

Denouement
Following the climax of a film or production denouement is the resolution where the story comes together to produce an explanation for viewers. It is often the final scene in a film. (Production)

Depth of field
Depth of Field (DoF) is the size of the area (from the camera lens to infinity) which is in focus at any single time. Cinematic footage generally has a shallow or short depth of field, meaning that the foreground and background are blurred. A deeper depth of field is used for establishing a scene or showing a location where viewers need to see more things in focus. (Camera crew)

Deuce
A Deuce is a 2K fresnel light. (Lighting)

Dialogue track
Quite simply this is a sound track, incorporated within the film or on an external recorder which contains speech. (Sound)

Diff
This is the term used for a gel (sometimes a frosted gel) which is positioned in front of a light source to reduce its overall brightness. Diffs are generally measured in ‘stops’. (Lighting)

Digital
Video or sound recorded on media which isn’t film. Digital video or sound uses mathematics (numbers) to create the image or sound, in contrast to film or magnetic tape which are older and non-digital ways of recording.

Digital 8
A format introduced by Sony and popular in the late 1990s. This format is now considered historic due to the introduction of digital technologies stored on flash media which have largely outdated the original tape formats of yesteryear for the video production industry. (video production)

Digital recording
The current method of recording pictures and sound in feature film (sometimes), and nearly always for live work, documentary production or corporate video. Digital recordings rely on the re-encoding of analogue signals (visual and sound) into digital format. The classic examples of commonly used digital recording formats used in the home are MP3 and MP4 formats, used for music production and video production.

Digital signal
A Digital Signal is a signal that is carried optically, without an analogue component. A Digital Signal may have been originated either digitally for example in the event of a musical synthesizer or through an analogue source, such as a video feed, prior to being converted into a digital form by an Analogue to Digital converter. (Post-production)

Digital video camera
Digital Video Camera is a camera which records using digital media such as flash data cards or SSDs. Thinktank uses the latest digital video camera technologies and industry standard lenses to produce corporate videos and documentary productions.

Digital video editing
Digital Video Editing: Digital video editing refers to the techniques of editing digital images and sounds. To enhance or improve a video/film, videographers use specialized digital video editing equipment, hardware, and software. It is crucial that digital video editing is completed, for a more refined film or video.

Digital Video Interface (DVI):
DVI signals are commonly found on high-end monitors where the signal can be DVI-A or DVI-D (with the A standing for Analogue and the D standing for Digital). Dual-Link DVI is another example of the DVI connector format. DVI links are often found on in-house video systems and on live event multi-camera systems which require the use of High Definition monitors for faithful playback of incoming signals from cameras, VT playback etc. (Hardware)

Digital Video Production
The services commonly provided by a video production company. The term can be misleading as digital video production companies can also use film cameras, depending upon the size, expertise and nature of the film company (video production)

Dimmer
A device, normally a fader or round button which is used for controlling the amount of light, between minimum and maximum light levels. (Lighting)

Dingle
These are branches with leaves, which are placed in front of a light as a cookie would to cut the light and provide a shadow pattern. (Grip/Lighting)

Diopter
A diopter helps correct vision for camera operators without perfect vision. Helps camera crew with less than perfect vision.

Director
The director is the individual leading the creative process of telling the story. The crew work under direction from the director who has overall control of the film. The director works alongside the producer to ensure that the film is delivered with the original vision in mind, within agreed budgets. A producer sometimes overrules the director in deciding on what the final edit should look like and therefore, films sometimes have an alternative version or director’s cut. (Film/ Video production)

Director of Photography
In film and video production, the Director of Photography or DoP, DOP or DP, is the individual responsible for creating the artistic and technical leadership for overall creative direction of the Film, following the Director’s guidance.

Director’s Cut
The director’s cut is often the non-commercial favourite version of the film, preferred by the film director. These cuts are often included with distributed Blu Rays and a director’s cut is sometimes significantly longer than the original film. (Production / post-production / distribution)

Director’s finder
This is a tool used by a film director or DOP for taking a quick look at what a shot is likely to look like using a certain prime lens, at a certain distance, angle or position. (Production).

Dissolve
A Dissolve is a video transition when one cut gradually dissolves directly into the next cut. (Film editing)

Dolly
A Dolly is simply a platform which can be used to hold a camera in a steady position. A variety of dollies exist, at a variety of price points from £1,000 - £100,000+ in video and film production. They can be used for a hand-held camera shot, shots from static platforms on the dolly, or the dolly can move with electronic control up/down to give greater flexibility for shots. Dollies are often moved along a track by a grip or they can also be used on free-moving pneumatic wheels for maximum flexibility. (Crew / Grip)

Dolly Shot:
A travelling shot or tracking shot which is captured using a dolly can also be referred to as a dolly shot (Crew / Production)

Doorway Dolly
This is a dolly made out of light-wood and with rubber tyres. It is also generally fitted with handles to facilitate easy moving by a grip. It is used for filming and can be also used for moving equipment around a location (grip) A plywood dolly with four soft tires which is narrow enough to fit through a doorway. It is used to carry a camera on a tripod or for transporting other heavy items. (Grip)

DoP
See Director of Photography. (Crew)

Dots
Dots are flags or small nets used in controlling light. (Grip / lighting)

Double system
This is the opposite of a single system. The double system records sound and picture to different devices, such as a camera and a separate field recorder. This is the standard methodology used for making high-end productions or feature films. (Film)

DP
See Director of Photography. (Crew)

DTV
Also known as Digital TV, which is the standard for broadcasting picture and sound digitally, which is superior quality to traditional analogue TV.

Dubbing
Dubbing: An actor’s voice synchronization with lip movements which are not the originally recorded sound. This is used to replace unusable dialogue or recordings, and also used to prepare foreign films for new markets. (Post Production)

Dupe
A Dupe is an exact copy of a negative or positive. Short for duplicate negative or duplicate positive. (Film editing)

Dutch Angle
Also called Canted Angle, a Dutch Angle is where a camera is placed at an angle so that the horizontal frame line is not parallel to the horizon during video or film production. (Camera crew / production)

Dutch Tilt
See Dutch Angle. Also see Canted Angle (Camera crew / production)

Duvetyne
Is a heavy black fire retardant cloth, used for blacking out windows, making teasers, hiding cables, and other unwanted items. (Grip)

DVI
See Digital Video Interface

Dynamic Distortion
Dynamic Distortion is the change of a volume range during sound transmission. (Sound)

Dynamic Range
The Dynamic Range is the difference between the peak and audio troughs of a track, measured in units of decibels. (Sound)