FILM & VIDEO PRODUCTION GLOSSARY

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 63 names in this directory beginning with the letter S.
S/N
Signal to Noise Ratio: This is the amount, expressed as a ration, of the wanted signal (sound) to the unwanted sound (noise). (Sound)

Safety shot
An additional take, done after a successful take, as an alternative choice. A safety wide is a fixed (or operated) camera used for cutting between and for establishing shots for productions such as live events.

Sand bags
Sandbags are used in a video production company’s lighting department to weigh down stands, which may have heavy lights attached to them (Lighting)

Saturation
Saturation is a measure of strength or amount of a certain colour present. Removing the saturation of any colour turns the colour to greyscale in a television picture. Saturation in the film production industry determines the purity of colour. (Editing, post-production, broadcast)

Sausages
When Marks are used which are raised, the term used in the film & video production industry is Sausages. Sausages allow the talent to hit the mark (the place where they need to stand) with more precision. (Production)

Scene
A continuous sequence of shots within a video production or film which separates it from the previous or upcoming sequence of events. For example, a car chase would be a scene in a movie.

Score
The musical score is an original piece of work composed and arranged for a motion picture or TV production.

Screen production
The process for developing a screenplay for TV, film or gaming

Screen splitter
In video production a screen-splitter is used to separate/combine camera images which are then synchronised

Screenplay
Is the script written to perform on-screen for film, TV or for gameplay (rather than a printed book)

Scrim
A scrim is a metal object which is placed in front of a light to shape the light. It works by allowing light through or blocking light to produce the desired effect (lighting)

Script
The Script is the general story for the video production.

Script editor
A script editor gives guidance and advice for screenplay productions and is a common link between parts of the production team and the scriptwriter.

Script supervisor
The script supervisor maintains continuity and tracks props, blocking and other details to avoid re-shoots. Script supervisor annotations can speed up the edit process during video production.

Scriptwriting
Scriptwriters create dialogue or narration in the production of corporate films, TV productions and feature films. Often in corporate film-making scripts are a collaborative effort with clients contributing technical or other expertise to enhance the story and make it more realistic.

Scrubbing
Scrubbing is moving tape or video rushes back and forth to help in assembling the video cut.

Second unit
The second unit is a film unit often used to get cutaways or incidental shots not involving the main actors. Second units can help big productions reduce costs and improve production times as there is no need for the main crew or main actors to be present during filming (crew)

Senior
A senior light is a 5K Fresnel (lensed) lighting unit. (Lighting)

Senior sand
Is a junior stand which is braced and able to be used for large light fittings such as a 5K, 10K, etc lights. (Grip/Lighting)

Set decorator
The individual responsible for making the set it look like the Art Director or Set Designer intended during film production.

Set designer
The individual responsible for designing the set and ensuring architectural integrity of the design

Set dresser
The individual responsible for furnishing and decorating the set.

Set up
The overall position of the camera when filming. (Crew)

Shoot
The production process which involves filming (or video camera footage) being recorded. (Crew/Production)

Shooting ration
This is the ratio of film recorded (shot) expressed as a ratio in comparison to the total finished production length. For example, if a 6 minute film requires 2 hours of shooting the ratio is expressed as 120:6 or in simple terms 6:1.

Shot
The recorded image in a frame between the start and end of the recording.

Shotgun microphone
A long, directional microphone to focus the captured audio to within a narrow direction, for example to capture a person’s voice. Generally speaking, the longer the shotgun mic, the more directional the sound. The idea behind the shotgun microphone is that the noise outside the area you want to capture is reduced or eliminated, to enable a better quality of sound from your actor or contributor (in corporate film). (Sound)

Showcard
A piece of white cardboard used as a reflector or to make special rigs. The showcard can be easily cut to shape. (Grip/Lighting)

Siblance
The exaggerated hiss within a particular voice patterns. (Sound)

Sight line
The line of sight between the actor/contributor and what they are looking at.

Silk
This is a material which provides diffusion or reflection. Lighting)

Silver screen
A silver lenticular screen, is a slang reference to a movie screen which originally contained tiny amounts of silver.

Single
A shot with one one person in the shot. (Production)

Single system
Used in small corporate films or ENG (Electronic News Gathering) when sound is recorded onto the same media as the video image. (Camera)

Slate
The marked or electronic clapper board placed in front of the camera at beginning of a take.

SMPTE
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.

SMPTE Time Code
SMPTE Time Code: Also known as Longitudinal Time Code. A high frequency signal that allows the accurate “locking” of film audio and video equipment. With numeric locator information.

Snow
Interference on the image/picture within a production.

Sound absorption
Soaking up, muffling or dampening sound is called sound absorption. This can be used to reduce reverb (sound reflection) or to reduce or eliminate external sound sources during video production. The ultimate sound absorption occurs in anechoic chambers, designed to completely eliminate reflected and unwanted sounds

Sound Assistant
A member of the Sound Department who helps other members of the team such as the Sound Recordist.

Sound designer
A sound designer generally works on feature films and is creatively responsible for the way in which the production sounds, to assist soundtrack development.

Sound Director
A Director of Audiography (DOA) or Audio Director (AuD), The Sound Director is the head of sound experience within a production and oversees every aspect of sound.

Sound editor
The sound editor creates, mixes and repairs sounds to produce a coherent overall sound for the film production.

Sound effects
Sound FX is a pre-recorded, mechanical or electronically simulated sound to make the on-screen visual experience more realistic. (Sound)

Sound recordist
The sound expert responsible for setting up recording equipment including microphones, mixers and monitors to capture authentic quality audio.

Sound supervisor
Sound supervisors work with the directors, and senior producers to organise and supervise sound department needs throughout the production.

Sound-on-sound
A method of superimposing sound from one track onto another, to add new sound and mix the sound together.

Soundtrack
Can mean the musical tracks from a film however it also refers to the total dialogue and mixed audio. (Sound)

Special effects
Special Effects, Special FX Audio FX/Visual FX (VFX) are elements of visual or audio enhancements introduced to a film. It is done where re-creating the real thing may be impossible, very expensive or too time consuming.

Specular
Specular light is reflected light, such as the highlights in an actors eyes. Specular surfaces are generally uniform to reflect light directly as the original light source intended it to be shaped. (Lighting)

Speed
In traditional film cameras, the ‘call’ was ‘Speed’ to inform the director that the roll had reached the correct speed for filming.

Spill
Light spill is light that emerges or spills from the side of a lighting unit and generally is an undesired effect which may need to be corrected. (Grip/Lighting)

Spirit gum
A theatric/feature film adhesive for prosthetics. Spirit Gum is strong but can be removed easily.

Split screen
A side-by-side view within a single frame showing two or more different videos or sequences.

Spot
A lighting term which means a highly focused light. For example, on a Fresnel, it is the point where the light is tightly focused in one place and is regarded as the smallest spread possible for a particular light source. (Lighting)

Spotting
Points where music cues will take place.

Stand-in
Another individual used to stand or sit in place of the real actor or contributor. This allows better camera/focus/lighting set-up before filming commences. (Camera)

Storyboard
A visual representation of the production to be filmed, showing roughly how the video or story will unfold during the video. Storyboards are useful in high-end film or corporate video productions.

Streaming video
Streaming video or streaming is the process of broadcasting video to mobile phones, tablet devices or desktop computers. Streams can be pre-recorded or recorded live (live streams), or for complex productions streams can be a mix of live and pre-recorded materials.

Striking
At the end of the filming session, striking is the process where the equipment is broken down, packed and moved away from the filming location.

Stunt-coordinator
The person responsible for coordinating the setup of stunts, working between various filming departments.

Sync
Matching up sound and vision in time is known as sync or synchronisation.

Synchronous sound
Sound which must be heard at the same time as an event, eg knocking on a door, etc.

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 63 names in this directory beginning with the letter S.
S/N
Signal to Noise Ratio: This is the amount, expressed as a ration, of the wanted signal (sound) to the unwanted sound (noise). (Sound)

Safety shot
An additional take, done after a successful take, as an alternative choice. A safety wide is a fixed (or operated) camera used for cutting between and for establishing shots for productions such as live events.

Sand bags
Sandbags are used in a video production company’s lighting department to weigh down stands, which may have heavy lights attached to them (Lighting)

Saturation
Saturation is a measure of strength or amount of a certain colour present. Removing the saturation of any colour turns the colour to greyscale in a television picture. Saturation in the film production industry determines the purity of colour. (Editing, post-production, broadcast)

Sausages
When Marks are used which are raised, the term used in the film & video production industry is Sausages. Sausages allow the talent to hit the mark (the place where they need to stand) with more precision. (Production)

Scene
A continuous sequence of shots within a video production or film which separates it from the previous or upcoming sequence of events. For example, a car chase would be a scene in a movie.

Score
The musical score is an original piece of work composed and arranged for a motion picture or TV production.

Screen production
The process for developing a screenplay for TV, film or gaming

Screen splitter
In video production a screen-splitter is used to separate/combine camera images which are then synchronised

Screenplay
Is the script written to perform on-screen for film, TV or for gameplay (rather than a printed book)

Scrim
A scrim is a metal object which is placed in front of a light to shape the light. It works by allowing light through or blocking light to produce the desired effect (lighting)

Script
The Script is the general story for the video production.

Script editor
A script editor gives guidance and advice for screenplay productions and is a common link between parts of the production team and the scriptwriter.

Script supervisor
The script supervisor maintains continuity and tracks props, blocking and other details to avoid re-shoots. Script supervisor annotations can speed up the edit process during video production.

Scriptwriting
Scriptwriters create dialogue or narration in the production of corporate films, TV productions and feature films. Often in corporate film-making scripts are a collaborative effort with clients contributing technical or other expertise to enhance the story and make it more realistic.

Scrubbing
Scrubbing is moving tape or video rushes back and forth to help in assembling the video cut.

Second unit
The second unit is a film unit often used to get cutaways or incidental shots not involving the main actors. Second units can help big productions reduce costs and improve production times as there is no need for the main crew or main actors to be present during filming (crew)

Senior
A senior light is a 5K Fresnel (lensed) lighting unit. (Lighting)

Senior sand
Is a junior stand which is braced and able to be used for large light fittings such as a 5K, 10K, etc lights. (Grip/Lighting)

Set decorator
The individual responsible for making the set it look like the Art Director or Set Designer intended during film production.

Set designer
The individual responsible for designing the set and ensuring architectural integrity of the design

Set dresser
The individual responsible for furnishing and decorating the set.

Set up
The overall position of the camera when filming. (Crew)

Shoot
The production process which involves filming (or video camera footage) being recorded. (Crew/Production)

Shooting ration
This is the ratio of film recorded (shot) expressed as a ratio in comparison to the total finished production length. For example, if a 6 minute film requires 2 hours of shooting the ratio is expressed as 120:6 or in simple terms 6:1.

Shot
The recorded image in a frame between the start and end of the recording.

Shotgun microphone
A long, directional microphone to focus the captured audio to within a narrow direction, for example to capture a person’s voice. Generally speaking, the longer the shotgun mic, the more directional the sound. The idea behind the shotgun microphone is that the noise outside the area you want to capture is reduced or eliminated, to enable a better quality of sound from your actor or contributor (in corporate film). (Sound)

Showcard
A piece of white cardboard used as a reflector or to make special rigs. The showcard can be easily cut to shape. (Grip/Lighting)

Siblance
The exaggerated hiss within a particular voice patterns. (Sound)

Sight line
The line of sight between the actor/contributor and what they are looking at.

Silk
This is a material which provides diffusion or reflection. Lighting)

Silver screen
A silver lenticular screen, is a slang reference to a movie screen which originally contained tiny amounts of silver.

Single
A shot with one one person in the shot. (Production)

Single system
Used in small corporate films or ENG (Electronic News Gathering) when sound is recorded onto the same media as the video image. (Camera)

Slate
The marked or electronic clapper board placed in front of the camera at beginning of a take.

SMPTE
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.

SMPTE Time Code
SMPTE Time Code: Also known as Longitudinal Time Code. A high frequency signal that allows the accurate “locking” of film audio and video equipment. With numeric locator information.

Snow
Interference on the image/picture within a production.

Sound absorption
Soaking up, muffling or dampening sound is called sound absorption. This can be used to reduce reverb (sound reflection) or to reduce or eliminate external sound sources during video production. The ultimate sound absorption occurs in anechoic chambers, designed to completely eliminate reflected and unwanted sounds

Sound Assistant
A member of the Sound Department who helps other members of the team such as the Sound Recordist.

Sound designer
A sound designer generally works on feature films and is creatively responsible for the way in which the production sounds, to assist soundtrack development.

Sound Director
A Director of Audiography (DOA) or Audio Director (AuD), The Sound Director is the head of sound experience within a production and oversees every aspect of sound.

Sound editor
The sound editor creates, mixes and repairs sounds to produce a coherent overall sound for the film production.

Sound effects
Sound FX is a pre-recorded, mechanical or electronically simulated sound to make the on-screen visual experience more realistic. (Sound)

Sound recordist
The sound expert responsible for setting up recording equipment including microphones, mixers and monitors to capture authentic quality audio.

Sound supervisor
Sound supervisors work with the directors, and senior producers to organise and supervise sound department needs throughout the production.

Sound-on-sound
A method of superimposing sound from one track onto another, to add new sound and mix the sound together.

Soundtrack
Can mean the musical tracks from a film however it also refers to the total dialogue and mixed audio. (Sound)

Special effects
Special Effects, Special FX Audio FX/Visual FX (VFX) are elements of visual or audio enhancements introduced to a film. It is done where re-creating the real thing may be impossible, very expensive or too time consuming.

Specular
Specular light is reflected light, such as the highlights in an actors eyes. Specular surfaces are generally uniform to reflect light directly as the original light source intended it to be shaped. (Lighting)

Speed
In traditional film cameras, the ‘call’ was ‘Speed’ to inform the director that the roll had reached the correct speed for filming.

Spill
Light spill is light that emerges or spills from the side of a lighting unit and generally is an undesired effect which may need to be corrected. (Grip/Lighting)

Spirit gum
A theatric/feature film adhesive for prosthetics. Spirit Gum is strong but can be removed easily.

Split screen
A side-by-side view within a single frame showing two or more different videos or sequences.

Spot
A lighting term which means a highly focused light. For example, on a Fresnel, it is the point where the light is tightly focused in one place and is regarded as the smallest spread possible for a particular light source. (Lighting)

Spotting
Points where music cues will take place.

Stand-in
Another individual used to stand or sit in place of the real actor or contributor. This allows better camera/focus/lighting set-up before filming commences. (Camera)

Storyboard
A visual representation of the production to be filmed, showing roughly how the video or story will unfold during the video. Storyboards are useful in high-end film or corporate video productions.

Streaming video
Streaming video or streaming is the process of broadcasting video to mobile phones, tablet devices or desktop computers. Streams can be pre-recorded or recorded live (live streams), or for complex productions streams can be a mix of live and pre-recorded materials.

Striking
At the end of the filming session, striking is the process where the equipment is broken down, packed and moved away from the filming location.

Stunt-coordinator
The person responsible for coordinating the setup of stunts, working between various filming departments.

Sync
Matching up sound and vision in time is known as sync or synchronisation.

Synchronous sound
Sound which must be heard at the same time as an event, eg knocking on a door, etc.